Eleaml



Una decina di giorni fa ci telefona un amico [di questo amico ne abbiamo già fatto cenno da qualche altra parte, è uno che ci rinfaccia di aver perso la pace da quando ci conosce, ora ogni volta che legge un quotidiano od una rivista che parla del Sud si domanda: A chi giova? Perché poche pagine sono destinate ad un territorio così vasto? Per quale motivo si enfatizzano solamente i problemi e le situazioni critiche che riguardano le zone a sud del Tronto?]per segnalarci una recensione. Il pezzo parlava dell'opera di un giovane studioso messinese, Sergio Di Giacomo, Il Sud del console Goodwin - Il Regno delle Due Sicilie nel Report del console britannico in Sicilia (1840). Per me sono solo dei nomi fra i tanti che ho incrociato in questi anni. Dispacci inglesi e articoli sui giornali stampati nelle terre della perfida albione ne abbiamo visti e letti tanti. Il report completo di Goodwin no, quindi lo abbiamo cercato e trovato ed ora lo mettiamo a disposizione degli amici naviganti.

Testo interessante che dietro le "normali" sviste del rappresentante di uno degli stati più ricchi e potenti dell'epoca, mostra una società dinamica in profonda trasformazione (e siamo nel 1840, Ferdinando regna da appena dieci anni!), dove esistono opifici che impiegano migliaia di lavoranti.

L'opera di Goodwin assieme al lungo report di John Macgregor sull'Italia, contenuto in "Commercial statistics: A digest of the productive resources, commercial" (che pubblicheremo più avanti) ebbero larga diffusione nell'ottocento.

Buona lettura.

Zenone di Elea – Febbraio 2012

JOURNAL

OP THE

STATISTICAL SOCIETY

LONDON.

VOL. V.

LONDON

JOHN WILLIAM PARKER, 445, WEST STRAND.

1842.

01 HTML - Progress of the Two Sicilies under the Spanish Bourbons, from the year 1734-5 to 1840
02 HTML - Progress of the Two Sicilies under the Spanish Bourbons, from the year 1734-5 to 1840
(se vuoi, scarica l'articolo in formato ODT o PDF)


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1734-35 to 1840. BY JOHN GOODWIN, Esq., Her Majesty's Consul for Sicily.

all Italian States, none is so imperfectly known to English reader as kingdom than which none is richer and more fertile in historical recollections, architectural remains, and natural phenomena.

battle Cannae in ancient days, and revolt Mass Aniello in modern, cloud brilliant page Neapolitan history. earlier annals Sicily are stained with massacre Selinus, and latter with horrors Sicilian Vespers. Herculaneum, Pompeii, and Paestum still consecrate soil Naples. fields Sicily are still hallowed by Segesta, Selinus, and Agrigentum. plains Naples are as often overflowed by lava Vesuvius, as vallies Sicily are devastated by fiery torrents Etna.

To depict such scenes-to delineate such monuments-and to describe such calamities-is province historian, antiquary, and natural philosopher. purport pages is a less ambitious character. To trace Neapolitan and Sicilian improvement accession to reign present sovereign, is author's humble endeavour.

past state kingdom has been described, on authority Colletta, Bianchini, Aceto, and Lanza,* whose works have been carefully consulted for authentic information. present condition has been delineated observation and inquiry made by author, during a residence nine years in both divisions kingdom.

________________________

CHAPTER 1.

Description -Situation and Extent-Face Country-Soil and Climate-Chief Cities-Monies, Weights and Measures.

kingdom consists Hither Sicily, commonly called Realm Naples, and Further Sicily, usually denominated Realm Sicily Proper.

Naples.-Realm Naples forms southern extremity Italian peninsula, and extends 38° to 43° north latitude, and 14° to 18° east longitude, Greenwich. Its greatest length is about 500 mjles, and its greatest breadth about 150. Its area is about 30,000 square miles. It is traversed north to south by Apennines, which chain proceed several branches, forming capes and headlands on eastern and western coasts. It is washed by Adriatic Sea on eastern side, by Ionian on southern and by Tuscan on western side.

principal rivers, as Tronto and Ofanto on eastern coast, and Garigliano and Volturno on western, are mere mountain torrents, which overflow their banks in winter and spring, and shrink into rivulets in summer and autumn. chief lakes are, great

* Bianchini-Storia delle Finanze di Napoli. 3 vols. 8vo. Napoli, 1834-35. Colletta-Storia del Reame di Napoli. 2 vols. 8vo. Capolago, 1836. Aceto-Dc la Sicile, et de ses Rapports avec l'Angleterre. 1 vol. 8vo. Paris et Londres, 1827, Lanza-Considerazioni Sulla Storia di Sicilia. 1 vol. 8vo. Palermo, 1836.

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lake Fucino or Celano, and small but celebrated lakes Averno and Lucrino.

four provinces into which territory was formerly divided, Abruzzo, in north, is mountainous and barren; Terra di Lavoro, in centre, is beautiful and fertile; Apulia, in east, has an immense plain, called Tavoliere di Puglia, which serves as a sheep-walk; and Calabria, on south, is rich and well wooded.

climate in mountainous parts is as cold and bracing, as it is sultry and relaxing in On western side, shores are marshy and unwholesome; on eastern, dry and perfectly healthy. Towards end October, tops Apennines are covered with snow, which usually lies till following summer. In some parts Abruzzo, winter lasts eight months ; in Terra di Lavoro and Apulia, cold weather continues only four or five months; and in Calabria it seldom exceeds three. In severest season, plains Terra di Lavoro are thickly strewn with wild flowers richest and most variegated hue.

chief cities are Naples, metropolis kingdom, Caserta, Salerno, Potenza, Avellino, Foggia, Bari, Lecce, Cosenza, Catanzaro, Reggio, Campobasso, Chieti, Aquila, and Teramo, capitals fifteen provinces into which realm Naples is now divided.

Accounts are kept in ducats and grains. Ten grains make a carline, worth about 4d. and 10 carlines make a ducat, worth about 3s. 4d.

Heavy goods are weighed by cantaro and rotolo. 100 rotoli make a cantaro, which is equal to about 196lbs. avoirdupois; so that a rotolo is somewhat less than 2lbs. avoirdupois. Corn is sold by tumolo, which 5 2/5 ths make an imperial quarter; oil by salm, which 5 ½ make a tun 236 gallons; wine by barrel, which 12 make a pipe 132 gallons: cloth by cane (canna), which is equal to 2 1/3 rd yards. Land is measured by which is equal to 5/6 ths an acre.

Sicily.island Sicily, washed on northern side by Tuscan Sea, on eastern by Ionian Sea, and on southern and western by African Sea, is situated between 36th and 38th parallels north latitude, and 12th and 16th degrees east longitude. Its shape is that an irregular triangle, each angle terminating in a promontory. eastern promontory is called Cape Faro, southern Cape Passaro, and western Cape Boco. Its greatest length is about 180 miles; its greatest breadth 130: its circumference about 600, and its area about 12,000 square miles.

principal rivers are Fiume Grande on northern side, Salso on southern, and Giarretta on eastern; but none them are navigable.

chief lake is Biviere de Lentini, size which varies with season. In winter circumference is about 19 miles, and in summer not more than 9 or 10 miles.

loftiest mountains are Apennines, or Madonian Chain, which begins at Cape Faro, runs westward to centre island, (where it throws off a spur, called Hersean range, which stretches southwards to Cape Passaro), and then steadily pursues its course towards Cape San Vito, where it meets Tuscan Sea. volcano Mingibello, better known as Etna, lies to east Heraean chain. largest plains are those Catania, Terranova, and Sciacca.

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interior island presents a vast assemblage lofty mountains, divided each other by fruitful Wallies. appearance northern and eastern coasts is bold and romantic: aspect southern and western coasts is far less striking. greater part soil, derived Jurassic limestone Madonian mountains, is calcareous: a small portion lying at foot Neptunian chain, on eastern side, is granitic. Where calcareous soil is deep, a black loam yields abundant crops; where it is shallow, a red sandstone renders a smaller produce. In both cases, harvest depends much upon rain.

climate in general is healthy. mean height barometer is 29° 80'. mean temperature is 63° Fahrenheit: that January and February, coldest months, is 52°; that July and August, hottest months, is 76". An agreeable freshness which prevails in May, becomes a genial warmth in June: in July and August weather is sultry and oppressive: in September and October a pleasant coolness usually reigns. Cold and damp, just perceptible in November, are sufficiently felt December until April to render a good fire agreable in winter's evening. A *drought commonly reigns May until September. Slight showers in October lead to heavy falls rain in November and December, which recur time to time until April, when fine weather usually sets in. mean quantity rain which falls annually at Palermo is 22 inches. Sufficient snow is found upon higher mountains October until May to supply both Sicily and Malta with this necessary life in a southern climate during rest

most remarkable wind is scirocco, which checks perspiration, dries up skin, and produces weariness and languor. Ushered in by a dead calm, visitation lasts about three days, and is followed by a deluge rain. During its continuance atmosphere is oppressive, and current air resembles blast a furnace. Thunder-storms are frequent between August and January, and slight shocks earthquake are common on eastern coast during first three months

chief cities are Palermo, capital, on northern coast; Messina, Catania, and Syracuse on eastern side; Girgenti on southern, and Marsala and Trapani on western. In interior are populous cities Caltanisetta, Castrogiovanni, and Caltagirone.

Government accounts are kept in ducats and grains, as at Naples; but merchants, accounts are kept in ounces, taris, and grains. 20 grains make a tari, worth about 4d. sterling; 30 taris make an ounce, worth about 10s.

Heavy goods are sold by cantaro and rotolo. A rotolo is equal to about lflbs. avoirdupois, and a cantaro, or 100 rotoli, is equal to 175lbs. avoirdupois. Corn is sold by salm, which 1 1/16 th is equal to an imperial quarter; oil by cafiso, equal to 2 2/8 rd imperial gallons; wine by botte, equal to 90 gallons; cloth by cane, equal to 2 1/8 rd yards. Land is measured by salm, equal to about 4 ½ acres.

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CHAPTER II.
AT CONQUEST, 1734-35.

had belonged to, Austria for about 14 years, when a war breaking out between Austria and Spain, Infant Charles Bourbon, son Philip V. Spain, invaded Naples by land in 1734, overthrew Austrian s, took possession capital, and carrying his arms beyond sea, made himself master Sicily in following that memorable epoch to present time, both have been with a single and short intermission at beginning present century. 1806 to 1815 Hither Sicily was governed by French usurpers, while Sicily Proper was subject, as before, to son conqueror.

Naples.-In 1734, realm Naples contained about 4,000,000 inhabitants. This small population comprised classes society- feudal class, which inhabited baronial towns, and demesnal class, which occupied royal burghs. former, it is believed, constituted three-fourths people. riches and prosperity classes formed a striking contrast to their relative numbers. demesnal population, governed by viceroy, directly or indirectly, was in a thriving state; feudal, subject to barons and clergy, was wretchedly situated. In many baronial towns, where mills and ovens were wanting, vassals were necessity pounding their corn in mortars, and baking their bread in embers; and, throughout feudal territory, peasants lived in straw and mud hovels, open to weather, and furnished only with a flock bed on trestles, upon which all household slept in common with dogs. All branches industry were in a backward state. Husbandry was slovenly; manufactures were rude; and commerce was insignificant. Inland traffic, confined to intermediate towns between capital and Roman frontier, was equally unimportant with maritime trade, which was carried on principally foreign flags.

government state was monarchical. legislative powers were vested in a sovereign, whose will was made known through a supreme called Council State, residence which was at Vienna. executive functions were committed to a subordinate giunta, called Collateral Council, which held its sittings at Naples. civil and criminal laws were not same for all classes society. vassals barons and clergy were subject to feudal and ecclesiastical institutes; while demesnal population was governed, according to usage, by nine codes, called Roman Law, Byzantine, Lombard, Norman, Suabian, Angevine, Aragonese, and Imperial, nations and dynasties by which Naples had been successively conquered. criminal procedure was barbarous and inhuman. witness, if voluntary, was not confronted with accused; if reluctant, he was liable, equally with accused, to be to torture, and to give evidence. In demesne, laws were administered by king's judges, who were court favourites; in feudal territory, justice was distributed by baronial judges, who were, for most part, pettifogging lawyers. Everywhere partiality and corruption went openly hand in hand. Capital punishments for murder and robbery were, in

51

affairs capital were directed by a corporate body, called "Deputation Nobles," which, as feeble representation extinct parliament, exercised a slight influence over king's vicegerent. demesnal towns, or royal burghs, were intrusted to presidents invested with military as well as civil authority. feudal towns were governed by barons and prelates, to whom they severally belonged. government interior was unsettled and irregular. revenue state, amounting to 2,309,500 ducats, (384,906 l.), arose many sources; as rent crown lands, profits royal monopolies, produce iron-works, state lottery, customs and duties, &c. army, about 20,000 strong, was in a loose state discipline; naval

-

force consisted a few galleys, manned by convicts and captives, chained to oar. education youth was in hands Jesuits; celebration public worship was conducted an overgrown body regular and secular clergy; two-thirds feudal territory belonged to priests and friars, who formed about a thirty-sixth part whole population.

Sicily.-At landing Infant Charles, Sicily contained about 1,000,000 inhabitants. This slender population was, like Neapolitan, divided into feudal and demesnal classes, which former constituted five-eighths Sicilian people.* Public industry, in all its branches, was in a sickly state; foreign trade was monopolised by French, Genoese, and Tuscans, whom latter sailed as often English flag as their own, as a safeguard against Barbary cruizers, by whom Italian flags were little respected.

Sicilian monarchy was a mixed character: legislative functions were vested in a sovereign, but regal power was controlled in some degree by parliamentary authority. executive functions were exercised by a viceroy or lord-lieutenant, who as at Naples, over a Collateral Council, established in capital realm.

laws Sicily formed an immense collection Roman, Norman, and Suabian institutes, royal decrees, pragmatic sanctions, and parliamentary statutes, which, by their darkness and inconsistency, placed life and property in imminent danger. In barony, civil and criminal law were administered by baronial judges, whose sentence no appeal was allowed to dissatisfied suitor. In demesne, administration justice was intrusted to king's judges, whose decision was final in criminal cases, but reversible in civil, upon appeal to provincial courts. Felons were tried by a criminal tribunal, over which a chief justice presided. Petty larcenies were punished by local authorities in a summary manner. In every large town an officer, called Captain Justice, pursued offender; another, called Fiscal, brought him to trial; and a third, called Criminal Judge, declared him guilty or not guilty. promptness and simplicity criminal procedure were overbalanced by its sternness, corruption, and partiality.

* It appears by census 1653 that out 285 cities and towns, a total population 873,742, only 43 belonged to demesne, and 242 to or feudal territory. inhabitants demesne amounted to 297,644, those barony to 576,098.-(Giornale di Statistics, vol. IV., p. 235.)

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captain justice, who was answerable for all robberies committed between sunrise and sunset, made amends for occasional losses by levying regular contributions, at stated seasons, on his district. judge, who, as well as fiscal, was appointed by barons and clergy, was ready tool his masters, for good or for evil. At their command or intercession, he condemned or spared delinquent. In capital civil law was administered, in last instance, by a great court, and criminal law by a captain justice and assessors, whose sentence, however, was reversible by a criminal tribunal. criminal procedure rested on extorted confession supposed delinquent. To obtain this questionable proof, species cruelty was practised. In misdemeanours, wrists accused were bound together so tightly as to stop circulation blood: in felonies and high treasons, red-hot irons were applied to soles feet, and splinters reed were thrust nails. If torture proved ineffectual, accused was thrown into a deep underground dungeon, smallest size and most horrible kind. Immured in a damp and dark cell, eight or ten feet long by three or four broad, prisoner lay upon straw, bound hand and foot, until he made desired confession. Such, at least, was procedure in capital. In provinces torture was not in use; but hardened malefactors and youthful offenders were huddled together in gaols, which, their filth and dampness, were hardly fit shelter for beasts field.

revenues demesnal towns were administered by royal jurats, who, accountable only to a corrupt board, called "Tribunal Royal Patrimony," usually made their fortunes during a short term office. revenue state was derived partly customs inwards and outwards, levied by royal authority, and partly donatives voted by a parliament, constitution which body requires a brief explanation. ancient parliament Sicily was composed three arms-military, ecclesiastical, and demesnal. military consisted 124 feudatories, entitled princes, dukes, marquesses, counts, and barons respectively. ecclesiastical consisted 61 prelates, various denominations. demesnal consisted 46 representatives demesnal towns. In military arm, every feudatory had as many votes as he had fiefs: Prince Butera, president, had no less than 18. In ecclesiastical and demesnal arms, absent members could vote by proxy. As feudatories were exempt new taxes, prelates were looking up for promotion, and representatives were, for most part, place-holders or place-hunters, demands viceroys seldom met with stubborn resistance. three arms debated apart, and communicated their separate votes by their respective ambassadors. Parliament met • only once in three years, and usually sat for only six or eight hours,or at most asinglenight. prorogation was signalized by agrand display favours: honours and decorations, preferments and offices, were showered upon members most distinguished for servility to court. Yet, rare as were its meetings, and short its sessions, parliament was not wholly useless. During long recess, a giunta nine members, taken equally three arms, and called "Deputation Realm," controlled viceregal government, watched over national liberties, and held public purse. As representatives

53

Instruction was in Sicily, as in Naples, committed to Jesuits. Public worship was conducted by a clergy chiefly remarkable for its wealth and numbers. Sicilian church differed Neapolitan in being subject to king, as apostolic legate, instead being ruled by a papal nuncio, as in other Catholic countries. Holy Office, or Inquisition, introduction which into Naples had been firmly and successfully resisted, had taken root in Sicily, and put forth its branches on all sides, to perversion public feeling, and distortion national judgment.

CHAPTER III.
REIGN OF CHARLES III. OVER 1734-35 TO 1759.

Naples.-Such was state when Infant Charles ascended throne both countries, title Charles III. Well aware that chief cause Neapolitan misery was overgrown power barons and clergy, he resolved to lay axe to root tree, and to attack first principles feudal authority. Laying down maxim, that no one should come between sovereign and subject, he narrowed feudal and ecclesiastical jurisdictions, took away right compounding punishments, and prohibited barons keeping men-at-arms to enforce judicial sentences. This object being attained, Charles followed up his plan undermining feudal power, by inviting great barons to court, and by treating them with studied kindness, in order to attach them to his person and family. lesser nobles, dazzled by royal condescension, quitted their castles and domains, and flocked to capital, where luxury and extravagance soon plunged them deep into debt. Forced to mortgage or sell their estates for purpose satisfying creditors? they sank into obscurity, and made way for lawyers and money-lenders, who, steadily rising as nobles declined in importance, came at length to constitute a third order Neapolitan society.

General industry was promoted, by encouragement and facilities given to commerce and manufactures. king having resolved that his troops should be dressed in Neapolitan cloth, many French and German weavers settled at Arpino, and set up woollen manufactures, after manner their several countries. Inland trade was facilitated by construction carriage-roads around metropolis, and foreign trade was protected by commercial treaties, fostered by security property and freedom religion guaranteed to aliens, and relieved oppression by revisal tariff. exportation corn, hitherto restricted, now became free, to mutual benefit grower and consumer.

constitution government continued same; distribution power underwent alteration. legislative functions were still vested in king, who presided over a council state. was abolished as a useless executive functions were committed to a board, called Camera di Santa Chiara, by which Collateral Council was superseded. For use reformed


vai su


54

To give to defence strength army was raised 20,000 to 24,000 men, and latter amount to 30,000 during reign Charles. materiel shared his attention in common with personnel: cannon foundries and armouries of all kinds were set up on a large scale, and capital was strongly and skilfully fortified. formation a navy occupied royal care. A nautical college was founded, and a dock-yard traced out. Shipwrights and pilots were sought out and enlisted, and seamen were enrolled in considerable numbers. result was soon apparent. A fleet, consisting ships line, frigates, and ten small craft, built and equipped at Naples, caused Neapolitan flag, formerly insulted with impunity, to be respected by Barbary corsairs.

interests literature and science were by institution societies and academies; and wants poverty were relieved by establishment a poor-house, endowed with ample funds.

Sicily.benefits derived by Sicily government Charles were fewer and less substantial than those reaped by Naples. Merchant shipping, indeed, was protected danger by erection moles or breakwaters at Palermo and Girgenti, and home trade derived convenience and advantage institution a tribunal commerce. Public health, too, was secured against contagion and infection by establishment quarantines; and sickness and want were assuaged and alleviated means a public hospital and a poor-house. general structure local administration was same as before; but machinery supreme government was somewhat altered by establishment at Naples a Giunta di Sicilia, for speedier despatch Sicilian affairs.

CHAPTER IV.
REIGN I. OVER PART I. 1759 TO 1806.

Charles III. succeeded in 1759 to monarchy, upon death his father, Ferdinand VI. Spain, relinquished throne Naples and Sicily to his third son, Ferdinand, agreeablyto treaty Aix-la-Chapelle, by which future union and Italian crowns had been expressly forbidden. Ferdinand ascended throne strange denomination Ferdinand Fourth Naples and Third Sicily. Destined to be called hereafter "Ferdinand First King he will be designated by latter title in following pages.

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A boy only eight years age at his accession to crown, Ferdinand left reins government to a Council Regency, at head which was Bernardo Tanuca, a statesman great ability and experience, by whom important trust was faithfully discharged, to honour and advantage nation.

Naples.-vigorous attack on feudal power, commenced Charles, was carried on by regency. baronial judges were deprived their authority, which was given to king's magistrates, and barons and prelates were placed upon a level with body people. Privileged orders ceased to exist, and society became divided into three classes, all equal to each other in eye law. These were nobles, gentry, and populace, which. second or middle class had greatest weight with government.

minority Ferdinand having terminated in 1767, Regency resigned helm to Sovereign, by whom Tanuca, president, was placed at head council. attention this statesman was first turned to improvement agriculture. New breeds cattle were imported; new methods husbandry were practised, and further encouragement was given to agricultural industry. Lands first ploughed and tilled, and domains first planted with olive trees, were exempted land-tax for twenty and forty years to come, according to circumstances. Other branches industry shared patronage government. silk-manufactory San Leucio, founded in 1788, long flourished royal protection. In one instance, however, ministerial intervention had a mischievous effect. A coral fishery, successfully carried on by mariners Torre del Greco, upon African coast, was ruined by minister interior, who, not content with allowing fishermen to manage their own affairs, formed them into a company, proceedings which were regulated by laws a coral code. bold and industrious seamen, who, when left to themselves, had toiled and prospered, were no sooner fettered by rules and regulations, than they slackened their exertions, off one by one, and at length gave up undertaking. formation , begun by Charles, was carried on by Ferdinand. Broad and solid causeways were constructed, length which exceeded 1,200 miles in all directions round capital

Population advanced faster than improvement. number souls in Neapolitan dominions, which in 1734 was about 4,000,000, amounted in 1786 to 4,800,000. condition people was far satisfactory. demesnal subjects were tolerably circumstanced; but feudal population, which formed portion Neapolitan people, was steeped in poverty to lips. A baronial town was readily distinguished a royal by meanness its houses, wretchedness its people, and scarcity or want all comforts and necessaries civilised life. Neither market-place nor colonnade, private garden nor public walk, appeared within its walls. only good buildings were castles and gaols, churches and monasteries, mansions and villas, dwellings barons, clergy, and local authorities.

Foreign trade was almost stagnant. In 1771, value all imports into Naples did not exceed 1,200,000 l.,

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nor that all disordered finances were re-organised between accession Ferdinand and commencement French Revolution. When latter broke out, revenue amounted to about 2,750,000 l., which sum about 170,000 l. were contributed by Sicily Proper. In 1790, allowances to royal family amounted to about 200,000 l. per annum, expenses government to about 1,000,000 l., payment to public creditors to about 500,000 l., and salaries, &c., to feudal authorities, clergy, &c., to about 1,250,000 l., making in all about 2,750,000 l. Thus public expenditure was about equal to, or somewhat exceeded revenue.

In 1780, an attempt was made by Sir John Acton, war minister, to place public defence on a new and efficient footing, result which was not answerable to masterly design. army was nominally 30,000 strong, but in reality only 20,000, remaining 10,000 not being in existence. Recruited by means a conscription, and by drafts galley-slaves, military force was as formidable to public peace as it was despicable to foreign enemy. Desirous to improve its character, Sir John Acton required both demesne and feudal territory to furnish their respective quotas cavalry and infantry. requisition was ineffectual; complement was still short. To fill up ranks infantry, recourse was had to which numerous convicts were transferred to barracks. motley force thus raised was placed French and Swiss officers, whose discipline proved too severe for Neapolitan endurance. Complaint became loud and general, and vacillating government dismissed officers. bulk relapsed into insubordination: artillery alone, commander which corps retained his commission, rose by degrees to well-earned distinction.

In 1790 nominal strength peace establishment was 50,000 all arms, and effective about half that number, including 6,800 foreign troops. war establishment in 1793 carried effective up to 36,000 regular troops, besides 15,000 militiamen, who were liable to serve in line in case invasion. same able minister navy was raised to a moderate degree efficiency in public estimation. Reduced to a few galleys in 1780, it consisted in 1788 4 lineships, 9 frigates, 6 corvettes, 6 xebecs, 4 brigs, and 8 galliots, carrying in all 962 guns, and manned by 2,850 seamen and marines. This strength went on increasing.


Imports.

Exports.


£.

£.

* 1. Materials of Food

225,000

660,000

2. Materials of Clothing, Building, & Furnishing

570,000

340,000

3. Materials of Manufactures, &c

445,000

80,000

Total.

1,240,000

1,080,000

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In 1790 a 74-gun ship and 140 small craft were built and fitted out, crews which squadron raised complement seamen and marines to 8,600 men.

education youth, as already mentioned, was intrusted to Jesuits. Upon expulsion that order in 1768, a portion their immense estates was applied to wants instruction, while another was devoted to purposes charity. Every demesnal town to which a share was given, hired a schoolmaster to teach reading and writing; and every province which partook bounty established a school for classical and mathematical learning. University Naples, which also shared spoils, enlarged bounds its studies. To ancient chairs municipal and international law, divinity and natural philosophy, new professorships were added Latin and Italian literature. chair political economy, first occupied by celebrated Genovese, and earliest kind in Europe, was endowed by a private citizen with 50 l. per annum for ever. But, although some part Jesuits, estate was usefully appropriated, by far greater part was profligately wasted. net revenue, 185,334 ducats, (30,889 l.), might have supplied country with a able teachers in every walk learning. Unhappily, estate was mismanaged, and instruction was but scantily promoted. bulk property was distributed people government, by whom it was bought, much its value, with perquisites office.

Defects and abuses in church establishment underwent a partial reform. number clergy amounted, in 1788, to 72,632, whom 47,233 were priests and deacons, and 25,399 were monks and friars. At same epoch, annual income clergy was estimated at 8,419,390 ducats, (1,403,231 l.), which sum about five-eighths belonged to regular clergy, and rest to secular body. wealth monastic orders had already been reduced, and was doomed to still further reduction. Ferdinand had scarcely attained his majority, before he suppressed seven convents in Naples, and twenty-eight in Sicily, upon doubtful ground their harbouring banditti, and confiscated their property, "as perverted to wicked purposes." To complete reformation, he prohibited ecclesiastical bodies adding to their present wealth, and fixed patrimonies priests, and portions nuns, at moderate amounts, without which, ordination or profession was strictly forbidden. number parish priests, formerly unrestricted, was now limited to five ministers for every thousand inhabitants.

Sicily.-Such was state Naples, when Ferdinand, driven out by French in 1799, took refuge in Sicily, where he met with a hearty welcome a warm and generous people, deeply sympathising in his misfortunes. Sicily was at this time in a wretched condition. population consisted about 1,600,000 inhabitants, whom greater portion were still subject to barons and clergy. Feudality, shaken to its centre, was not yet overthrown. time immemorial great nobles had interfered in municipal elections, and tyrannized over peasantry. It was duty vassal to carry baron's corn to market before he disposed his own; to sell his gardenstuff to baron at a fixed value; to plough baron's land for nothing; to crush his olives at baron's press; to grind his corn at baron's mill: and to buy his bread, meat, oil, and wine, at ovens, shambles, shops, and taverns belonging to fief. barons, on other hand, were charged with expenses courts and prisons,

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and

redress grievances and reformation abuses, caused industry to be steady, although slow. Agriculture and commerce were still in a backward state. only thriving branch was raising corn and grain. cultivation olive and grape, almond and orange, yielded husbandman as little profit as was reaped by grazier breeding sheep and cattle. Nor were merchant and manufacturer in a better situation than farmer and planter. Foreign trade was obstructed by Turkish piracy; annual imports all countries did not amount in value to 250,000 l.; exchange commodities between Naples and Sicily was limited extent; coasting trade was shackled by municipal laws, and inland trade embarrassed by collection transit duties. Nor were these only obstacles to free communication. There were but carriage-roads in island-one Palermo to Vallelunga, about sixty miles long*, and another, about five miles long, Palermo to Morreali. rest island was traversed by muletracks. Where stone causeways and stepping-stones were wanting, as was frequently case, plains and rivers were almost impassible after heavy falls rain.

government had no material change since accession Charles III. teaching had, since expulsion Jesuits, been intrusted to a board prelates, by which schools had been established on paper, before provision had been made for their support. Jesuits, forfeiture, which, as at Naples, might have answered all purposes, was squandered away by commissioners, aptly called "Giunta degli Abusi," by whom it was perverted to useless and frivolous ends. sum 10,000 l. was misapplied to restoration a corn bank, and totally lost; small sums were devoted to purposes instruction; an academy was founded in Palermo; university Catania was enlarged, and schools industry were opened in Palermo, Messina, and Catania; but greater part estate was wasted in law-suits, and little that remained in 1804 was restored to Jesuits, upon reinstatement banished society.

connexion between church and state, long severed by intervention Holy Office, had been restored upon overthrow that hateful institution in 1782. tribunal inquisition was first established in Sicily emperor Frederick, about A.d. 1220. For centuries and a half, during which period it is designated as "Ancient Inquisition," its annals are unimportant, compared with its history in later times. Placed in 1483 institution, which Torquemada was then bloody director, Sicilian tribunal changed its moderate character for one extreme severity.

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In 1487,

On 27th March, 1782, Holy Office was suppressed by viceroy Caraccioli, who entered hall in state, and ordered prisoners to be set at liberty. ill-gotten wealth office was forfeited to crown. iron cages, containing human skulls, were taken down and split asunder, in order that every trace this odious institution might be blotted out memory. archives were ordered to be burnt, and their ashes to be scattered to wind. So strictly was this order enforced, that out an immense mass papers and parchments, a single volume records escaped flames. This collection manuscripts, still preserved in a private library at Palermo, contains original acts inquisition during persecution Molinists, or Quietists, between 1681 and 1700.

king's visit to Sicily produced little or no change in condition people, state industry and instruction, or constitution local government. Returned to Naples after an absence three years, Ferdinand found, to his great joy, that measures introduced by French had been fleeting and short-lived. ancient institutions had already been re-established. Hardly was Ferdinand restored, than he hastened to suppress "Deputation Nobles," and to organize a senate, composed his own creatures, which should regulate and administer finances capital, without controlling action general government. His sway was destined to be short. In 1806, French having regained their ascendancy, Ferdinand relinquished throne Naples, and again sought refuge in his Sicilian dominions.

CHAPTER V.
FRENCH DOMINION OVER NAPLES 1806 TO 1815.
I. Reign Joseph Buonaparte 1806 to 1808.
II. Reign Joachim Murat 1808 to 1815.

Upon abdication Ferdinand, vacant throne Naples was usurped by Joseph Buonaparte, by whom it was occupied for about years.

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Naples.-At this epoch, the Neapolitan territory belonged to a small number of landlords, by whom it was let out upon long leases to middlemen or contractors. The larger portion was owned by the barons and the clergy, the smaller by the lawyers and men of capital, who, as already stated, had supplanted the lesser nobility. The great mass of the population was still struggling with poverty and want. The state of agriculture was deplorable. Large and lovely plains, once renowned for fertility, but now become barren, were covered with stones and rubbish, brought down by the torrents from the Apennines: the progress of husbandry was checked by unwise and selfish laws, which prevented the farmer from selling his corn at market, or sending it abroad, until the local and public wants were supplied and satisfied. Rudeness of machinery, scarcity of capital, and limitation of credit, caused manufactures to be stationary. Foreign trade was suspended on account of the war, and inland trade was obstructed by the bad state and want of roads.

The public revenue, amounting to 16,000,000 ducats, (2,666,666 l.), arose from a land-tax, rent of crown lands, compositions for feudal services, and other minor sources. Many imposts were mortgaged to the national creditor. The laws were scattered over thirteen codes, of which the latest, or that of Charles III., clashed with the preceding twelve. The civil procedure was tedious, and unsettled: the criminal process was cruel and oppressive. The course of justice often met with obstructions from ministerial intervention. The judges, wholly dependent on the crown, were removable at pleasure.

The estates of bodies corporate were administered by municipal magistrates, who rendered their accounts once a year to the assembled burghers, whose approval was conclusive.

Elementary knowledge was inculcated in normal, conventual, and diocesan schools, scattered over the country: classical learning was cultivated in the capital: mathematical was wholly neglected. Degrees in divinity, law, and medicine, were publicly sold by collegiate authorities.

Such was the sad state of Naples when Joseph Buonaparte first ascended the throne. To encourage agriculture, by breaking up the royal demesne and by abolishing feudal rights, was the earliest endeavour of the new sovereign. A large portion of the Tavoliere di Puglia was let out upon long leases to the neighbouring farmers, to be ploughed, sown with corn, and planted with olive trees; the remainder was left entire, to serve as a vast sheep-walk for the migrating flocks of Apulia and Abruzzo. The prompt abolition of feudal rights illegally exercised, was the subject of a decree, (2nd August, 1806,) by which feudal estates were made liable to taxes, in common with demesnal property.

The abolition of feudal rights led to the suppression of entails, and the latter to the separation and extinction of common and promiscuous rights. Sole property became freely, and mixed became conditionally, alienable at the will of the actual possessor.

The new monarch next proceeded to suppress the monastic orders. Those of St. Benedict and St. Bernard, twelve metropolitan nunneries, and all the beneficed orders, shared the common fate. The number of suppressed societies amounted to 210, and the sum of their riches to 150,000,000 ducats, (25,000,000 l.) Pensions of from 10 l. to 20 l. a-year were settled on the monks and nuns thus despotically ejected from their houses and homes.


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The enormous quantity of crown and church property thus thrown into the market created a new class of landlords in the capitalists of Naples, by whom it was principally purchased.

Changes were soon made in the structure of government. Legislation, indeed, continued to be a royal prerogative, as heretofore: but the executive department was materially altered: improvements were made in the mode of administering justice, by the introduction of the Code Napoleon, and by the partial reformation of the judicial order.

The civil code established the supremacy of the law, and the equality of all classes of subjects. The commercial code, lenient to misfortune, treated fraud with severity. Special jurisdictions were abolished, and succeeded by complete uniformity in the administration of justice. The integrity of the judges was secured, by making them independent of ministerial favour.

The criminal code, and the code of civil procedure, were disfigured by blemishes and defects of a striking character; but, upon the whole, the good outweighed the evil, and the judicial reforms conciliated public favour.

The government of the interior was entirely remodelled, and the country divided into 14 provinces, 50 districts, 494 circondari, and 1,792 communes-a territorial division which still subsists with a slight alteration. An intendente, charged with the control and direction of subordinate officers, was set over every province, as the king's representative. Every district, in like manner, was committed to a sub-intendente, and every commune to a syndic and two elects, the representatives of their respective superiors. A small share of power was given to councils of provinces, districts, and communes, the members of which were chosen from among the wealthiest inhabitants by royal authority.

The finances of the state were settled on a new plan. The poll-tax and others were superseded by a general impost, or income-tax, assessed at 20 per cent., the produce of which was about 7,000,000 ducats, 1,166.666 l.) The funding system was now first introduced. The government, desirous to redeem the imposts, mortgaged for loans, set confiscated lands up to auction to the value of 10,000,000 ducats, (1,666,666 l.), declaring that public securities would be taken in payment to the amount of three-fourths of the price, the rest being payable in cash. Many valuable taxes were thus advantageously and honourably redeemed. The claims of such mortgagees as refused the offer were placed upon a register, called "the Great Book of the Public Debt," as transferable inscriptions, bearing annual interest at 5 per cent. The capital of this debt amounted, on the 30th April, 1808, to 100,684,559 ducats, (16,780,760 l.)

The defence of the country shared the attention of the sovereign. The strength of the army in 1808 was 21,600, including two foreign corps. The mode of recruitment adopted was the bad one of former days: recourse was had to the prisons to form new regiments of infantry, destined for foreign and domestic service; and the safety of the interior was committed to a corps of volunteers or provincial militia.

The public defence by sea, likewise, occupied the royal care. All the Neapolitan ships of war having been carried off to Sicily by Ferdinand, there remained behind but a few gun boats to be seized by the French invaders. Within two years, however, a small squadron, consisting of a frigate, a corvette, a brig, and 80 small craft, appeared as the nucleus of a Neapolitan navy.

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Public instruction received attention without being greatly promoted. Schools in all the communes, and colleges in all the provinces, for elementary and classical learning, were rather designed than established, by decrees to that effect.

On the 15th of July, 1808, Joseph Bonaparte, who was created king of Spain by Napoleon, resigned the crown of Naples to his brother-in law, Joachim Murat.

The first step taken by Joachim was to pursue the plan of policy laid down by his predecessor, for the destruction of feudal power. The Feudal Commission of 1806, had been directed to separate feudal from allodial or free lands, to determine the several rights of the barons and the towns over lands held in common, and to divide such estates between the joint owners, and lastly, to distribute the portion assignable to the towns among the inhabitants, by public sale at auction. The task had been undertaken, but was far from completion. The co-proprietors had been brought into court. The king, the barons, and the clergy stood on one side, and on the other stood the communities, or feudal and demesnal towns corporate. Many reputed fiefs had been declared free properties; many common estates had been divided, and many assigned lands had been put up to auction. The Commissioners were charged with having courted popularity by an undue leaning to the weaker side. The communities, it was said, were favoured in the appraisement of rights and the division of lands, and the poorer townspeople were accommodated, at the expense of the richer burghers, in the allotment of their several portions. To remove all just complaint, and to complete the important work, a new Board was created, composed of independent magistrates, who should settle all pending suits in a summary manner. The new Commissioners entered upon their duties in 1810. Such joint estates as were still undivided^ and such town lands as were still undistributed, were assigned and allotted to the respective claimants without further delay; and the abolition of entails, and the establishment of absolute rights were now confirmed and consolidated. The effect of these measures was to raise up a class of landlords, by whom husbandry was carried on upon new and better principles in all its different branches.

Manufactures made steady advances as soon as masters and workmen were emancipated from the thraldom of guilds. The making of hats was improved; the weaving of cloths was extended; but every attempt, however vigorous, to establish the manufacture of cottons, silks, and leathers, ended in disappointment. Maritime commerce, checked by the British cruizers, gave way to inland trade, which was carried on with great success. Raw produce was sent overland to Upper Italy, France, and Germany, in large quantities of considerable value. The exportation of cotton wool, for instance, amounted in 1808 to 30,000 bales, worth 300,000 l.

The revenue of Naples amounted, in 1810, to about 12,000,000 ducats (2,000,000 l.), of which sum about one-half arose from the land tax, and the other half from indirect taxes. The expenditure amounted to about 13,500,000 ducats (2,250,000 l.), so that a deficit remained of 1,500,000 ducats (250,000 l..), to be adjusted, as soon happened, by the sale of national property. In 1814 the joint revenue of the state and the provinces was about 26,000,000 ducats (4,333,333 l.)

The interest of the national debt, fixed as we have seen at 5 per cent. per annum, was suddenly lowered to 3 per cent. This breach of public faith took place from the 1st of January, 1809.

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The capital of the national debt was reduced from 130,000,000 ducats, its amount in 1806, to 28,000,000, whereon the diminished interest was 840,000 ducats, (140,000 l.)

In 1811 the army was re-organized and the navy recruited. The strength of the line was fixed at 60,000 and that of the militia at 40,000. The military college was converted into a polytechnic school, and special schools were established for the artillery and engineers. The conscription was introduced about the same time, without meeting with resistance or creating dissatisfaction. The materiel of the navy was strengthened by the addition of a line-of-battle-ship, two frigates, and many gun-boats, which were launched and equipped in 1810.

The proposed establishment of communal schools and provincial colleges had, as already stated, generally failed. In 1810 few schools were opened, and still fewer colleges were founded. The whole revenue of the latter seminaries was about 7,000 ducats (1,166 l.) per annum, and the number of the scholars was less than 200. The divinity schools or seminaries of the church, had not more than 1,500 students of all ages. To promote the purposes of education, Joachim decreed that a primary school, or school for reading and writing, should be established in every commune; that secondary or classical schools should be founded in every province; that diocesan schools should be endowed for instruction in divinity; and lastly, that the University of Naples should be authorized to confer degrees in Law and Medicine. The education of females engaged public attention. Free schools for girls were founded in the capital and the provinces. One of these seminaries, first established at Aversa but afterwards removed to Naples, was endowed by Caroline Murat with 40,000 ducats (6,666 l.) per annum. Some account of its present state will be found hereafter.

Such were the social and political changes introduced by the French invaders. In 1815 Joachim Murat, driven out by the Austrian forces, relinquished the throne of Naples to its ancient possessor, the exiled Ferdinand.

CHAPTER VI.
REIGN OF FERDINAND I. OVER SICILY ALONE, FROM 1806 TO 1815.

Ferdinand, on his return to Palermo in 1806, found his Sicilian subjects in much the same state in which he had left them. The principal nobility, who drew their incomes from landed property, were overwhelmed with debts and embarrassed with law suits; the gentry or middle classes, who had mortgages on estates, were involved in difficulties, from which extrication was hopeless; and the lower orders, composed of labourers and mechanics, ill paid and ill fed, completed the picture of misery. The most prosperous class of society was the regular clergy. The beneficed orders, consisting chiefly of the younger nobility, led an idle and luxurious life, dignified by the sounding title of "learned leisure," and "devout contemplation;" and the mendicant orders, recruited from among the peasantry, fattened upon the bounty of their charitable kinsfolk. Husbandry had fallen to decay in common with handicraft. The greater part of the territory lay waste, and one-third of that which was ploughed served for pasturage and fallows. Cultivation scarcely extended beyond the neighbourhood of towns and villages.

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The breeds of horses and mules had degenerated from their former excellence; the various products of the flocks and herds served merely for home consumption; the farmers were prohibited from exporting their cattle, and the butchers were prevented from killing sheep and oxen oftener than once a-week, lest beef and mutton should become scarce and dear. The only manufactures were those of silks and woollens, which were woven for domestic use. The art of mining was in its infancy. A little sulphur was extracted for the supply of foreign countries, and a little salt was excavated for the wants of the island. The foreign trade was in the hands of the French, the Genoese, and the Ragusans, by whom foreign manufactures were exchanged for Sicilian produce; the merchant-shipping consisted wholly of small craft, which found employment in the coasting trade and the trade with Malta.

The revenue, amounting to about 1,500,000 ounces (750,000 l.) per annum, arose from direct and indirect taxes in the following proportion:- Direct taxes, 577,917 ounces (288,958 l. 10s.); and indirect taxes, 922,083 ounces (461,041 l. 10s.)

The direct taxes were voted by parliament, whose representatives, or deputies of the realm, raised and issued them as already explained. More than two-thirds were paid by the demesnal towns; the rest was a joint contribution of the barons and clergy. The indirect taxes fell upon all classes alike, and arose from customs and excise, &c. &c. One great item of public expenditure was the interest of the floating debt, which was paid to an immense multitude of Sicilian creditors.

The army was divided into the line and the militia. The line, chiefly composed of malefactors, was commanded by foreign adventurers; and such was the repugnance entertained for the service, that few of the Sicilians would accept commissions. The militia, consisting of 10,000 foot and 1,600 horse, was under the command of the Sicilian nobility. The line was charged with the safeguard of the capital and the coasts: the militia was entrusted with the care of the public peace, but the discipline of both corps was loose and irregular. The navy consisted of a few gun-boats, which cruized round the island to keep off the Barbary pirates, whose descents on the southern and western coasts were marked by robbery and bloodshed.

Such was the unhappy state of Sicily during the first four years after Ferdinand's return from Naples. In 1810 a change in the plan of taxation led to a reform in the system of government, too remarkable to be briefly passed over. The direct taxes produced, as stated, 577,917 ounces (288,958 l.) a-year. This sum being insufficient for the wants, or rather the luxuries of the Court, the king asked the parliament of 1810 for a further sum of 360,000 ounces, under the specious name of a subsidy. The Military Arm, however, disregarding the application, reduced the subsidy granted by the other Arms to 215,000 ounces, and voted a whole supply of 792,000 ounces, (396,000 l.) They proceeded still further. Struck with the inequality of the public burthens, as much as with their weight, the barons declared that the supply should be raised, not as formerly by throwing two-thirds on the demesne, and by dividing the remainder between themselves and the clergy, but by charging the net income of all estates, to whomsoever belonging, with five per cent.; a tax well calculated to produce the required amount. This financial scheme, of which the Abate Balsamo was the author, and Prince Belmonte

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patron and supporter, met with complete success, to great dissatisfaction Court, by whom, as it touched crown property, it was strongly opposed in its passage through parliament.

Court, instead reducing its expenses to level its income, persisted in spending money until its funds were exhausted. Bankrupt in capital and credit, it resorted to fraud and oppression to replenish its treasury. Three were accordingly issued on 14th February, 1811; first which charged all payments made in legal form with a duty one per cent, ad valorem; second ordered certain demesnal estates to be sold by public auction; and third appointed church property to be disposed by lottery. These arbitrary measures totally miscarried. Payments in legal form "were no longer made before notaries public, but in presence private friends; demesnal estates were set up for sale without finding a single bidder; and lottery failed altogether, as not half tickets were sold, in exertion to cause them to be taken by retainers Court. queen, to whom king now resigned reins government, resolved to wreak her vengeance upon Princes Belmonte and Castelnuovo, whom she looked upon as chief cause late miscarriage. These noblemen, apprized her intentions, determined to be beforehand with their implacable enemy. They accordingly sent in a memorial, by all nobility Palermo, requesting king to abolish one per cent, tax, and to trust to bounty parliament for supply his wants. queen, enraged at memorial, returned no answer, but caused its authors, together with their chief abettors, Princes Aci and Villafranca, and Duke Angio, to be arrested in night and shipped off with all speed to Sicilian Islets.

England, which had hitherto taken no part in struggle between Court and parliament, moved at length by wrongs her. own subjects, for which no redress could be had, and fearful lest Sicilians, stung to madness by oppression, should throw themselves headlong into arms French, now determined to interfere in affairs a country which she had long protected with a fleet and army, and enriched with an annual subsidy. Lord William Bentinck, her minister plenipotentiary and commander forces, being invested with full powers to act at discretion, hastened to require that all Neapolitans should be removed Court, and that council should be filled with Sicilians alone; that exiled barons should be recalled to Palermo; that one per cent, tax should cease to be levied; and that he himself should be appointed commander-in-chief all Sicilian forces. Court, unable to resist demands, but unwilling to comply with them, had recourse to trick, and returned an evasive answer. Bentinck, incensed at subterfuge, and determined to bring matters to an issue, stopped payment subsidy; and finding that king was a mere tool in hands his artful consort, urged him to resign his power to his eldest son Francis. Ferdinand yielded with a bad grace; and on 15th January, 1812, conferred office vicar-general hereditary prince, and appointed Bentinck to chief command Sicilian forces.

five barons were no sooner recalled, than three them, Belmonte, Castelnuovo, and Aci, were made secretaries state to prince regent or vicar-general.

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first step new ministers was to call parliament together. meeting Three Arms took place on 18th July, 1812, upon which day a plan reform, brought forward by government, was carried unanimously. plan was in substance as follows:-

I. religion state was to be Roman Catholic exclusively.

II. power making laws was to reside in parliament, and that putting them in force in crown.

III. right imposing taxes was vested in parliament, subject, however, to king's approval.

IV. administration justice was confided to judges destined to be independent crown, and amenable only to parliament.

V. king's person was declared to be inviolable.

VI. All public servants were to be accountable to parliament for faithful discharge their trusts and duties.

VII. parliament was to be composed chambers; one called Chamber Commons, or Representatives Demesnal and Baronial Towns; other called Chamber Peers, or Assembly Barons and Prelates. Every peer was to have one vote, and no more. king to have right convoking, proroguing, and dissolving parliament, bounden duty to call parliament together once at least.

VIII. No Sicilian was to be arrested, imprisoned, or banished, or in anywise molested, except by virtue established laws, and by authority a competent magistrate. All feudal lands were to become allodial or freehold, but to be inherited according to rules succession laid down in feudal families.

IX. Baronial jurisdiction was to be abolished, and barons were to be relieved expense administering justice. barons were to retain their titles, and to be released feudal services.

X. Every motion relative to subsidies was first to be made in Chamber Commons, and thence to be referred to Chamber Peers for approval or rejection without change or alteration. Motions on all other matters were to be made in either Chamber; right confirmation or disallowance resting with Chamber to which such motions should happen to be referred.

As soon as these Articles had been sanctioned by parliament proceeded with work constitutional reform. legislative, executive, and judicial powers were separated each other, and formed into independent branches.. succession to throne was settled: revenue state was fixed; and expenditure regulated. municipal institutions were recast upon a new and better model. territory was divided into districts; feudal rights were abolished in common with entails; press was established with wholesome restrictions; rights citizens were acknowledged, and their duties laid down.

Some account these reforms may not be out place.

king was authorized to create new peers among such Sicilians as possessed landed property yielding 6,000 ounces (3,000 l.) per annum. Chamber Commons was to consist representatives districts, cities, and towns,

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possessed 500 to 150 ounces perking was empowered to make peace and war, to enter into treaties and alliances, to confer titles nobility, and bestow decorations honour; to coin money; to command forces by sea and land, and to discharge manifold duties office.

administration laws, as already stated, was intrusted to a body independent judges. Every officer justice, who should take an accused person in custody, was to be furnished with a warrant setting forth cause arrest. party thus arrested was to be examined before a magistrate within twenty-four hours. Every prisoner accused less than felony was to be allowed to give bail, and all evidence against him was to be taken in his presence. No judge or magistrate was to have recourse to torture; no untried person to be put in irons or thrown into dungeons. All ministers justice were to be subject to parliamentary censure. Trial by jury was deferred for future consideration. Justices peace were to be established in all communes, and criminal courts in all districts. As to civil law, judges first and second instance were to be stationed in villages and towns, and civil tribunals in all districts. latter, appeal lay to city courts, and thence to a cassation court, to be established in Palermo. Causes between husbandmen or between mechanics were to be tried by juries farmers or tradesmen respectively.

king was not to leave Sicily without consent parliament. In case he recovered his Neapolitan dominions, his Majesty was to send his eldest son to reign over Naples; or, if he preferred Naples to Sicily, his Majesty was then to surrender crown latter to his eldest son, realm Sicily being declared to be independent realm Naples, and every other country or foreign dominion.


Ounces.

£.

The revenue of the state was fixed at..

1,847,687

923,843

Deducting from which sum the British subsidy of

560,000

280,000

There remained to be paid by the Sicilians.

1,287,687

643,843


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This net amount arose direct taxes, such as land-tax, and tax on corn; indirect taxes, such as customs, lottery, fees office, &c., and sources, as produce sequestered and confiscated propertv. expenditure was estimated at 2,016,089 ounces (1,008,045 l.), being 168,402 ounces (84,201 l.) more than gross amount revenue. This deficit was covered shortly afterwards by raising land-tax 5 to 7£ per cent., and by laying a small duty on export wine.

interests communes were intrusted to civic councils and municipal magistrates. council was charged with care public granaries, and with audit public accounts; and magistrates were guardians health, and managers revenue. transit duties were abolished, and interchange produce between one province and another was relieved all obstruction.

territory, divided old times into three Vals, was distributed into twenty-three districts, each which was intrusted to a captain-at

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feudatories, or holders fiefs, were, as before-mentioned, deprived their rights, but released existing obligations. Among latter, entails held a prominent place. Ex-feudatories were now invested with new proprietary powers: such as were peers, were required to annex one-fourth their formerly entailed estates as a maggiorasco, or heir-loom, to their titles nobility; and such as were commoners were relieved obligation; but all were prohibited alienating more than one-third their whole estate, and were required to leave remainder to be equally distributed among their children and descendants.

Every Sicilian was allowed to print and publish his sentiments and opinions, without submitting his manuscript to a censor press; but no work upon religious matters could be printed without sanction church authorities. Works a profane, immoral, or seditious tendency, made author liable to undergo penalties law. Every citizen had right speaking on public affairs, and seeking redress for wrongs and grievances. No one could be imprisoned or punished by virtue an ex post facto law. All priests and magistrates were enjoined to expound and explain constitution at stated times, in order that no citizen might plead ignorance established law. No citizen would be allowed to vote at an election after 1840, who should not be capable reading a printed book.

royal assent was given to these acts in May, 1813, and whole collection was published shortly afterwards, to unspeakable joy Sicilian people.

ancient parliament had been dissolved on 4th November, 1812, and a new one, to which country looked with hope and confidence, had been elected in course following spring. Unhappily, these hopes were ill-founded. A contest for presidency Chamber Commons was followed by stoppage subsidies, and a message crown proving ineffectual, constitutional ministers resigned seals office to absolute royalists. change ministry was followed by re-establishment a "meta," or assize on provisions, and by impeachment British generals, who were charged with having endeavoured to bring plague into Sicily Malta, where it was raging in all its fury. After a delay three months, subsidies were voted, before means had been provided for raising them by direct or indirect taxes; and parliament, after prorogations, was dissolved on 28th October, 1813. Such was end first reformed parliament. That free assembly, destined by its constituents to complete constitutional edifice, proved, by its violence and inconsistency, cause its precipitate downfall. Shortly before dissolution, royalist ministry had given place to a liberal cabinet, constructed auspices Lord William Bentinck. general election terminated in favour constitutional party, and absolute royalists were almost everywhere thrown out. new legislators

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Shortly before opening parliament, king, who had lately been re-instated by a liberal ministry, dismissed his too generous opponents, and replaced them by absolute royalists. On 16th July, 1814, Lord William Bentinck quitted Sicily for ever. days after his departure, parliament was opened by king in person, who approved recent reforms, and exhorted Chambers to persevere in their noble undertaking.

Chamber Peers had no sooner met, than it petitioned king to dissolve parliament, on pretence that Chamber Commons had been illegally chosen. This unreasonable prayer, to which Commons offered no opposition, was readily and second reformed parliament was strangled in its birth. Prince Belmonte withdrew to France, and with him vanished last hopes a constitutional monarchy. A third reformed parliament, composed chiefly royalists, met on 22nd October, 1814, and sat, without doing aught but planning a new code, until 17th May, 1815, when Chambers were dissolved. dissolution was final; and a parliament has not since met in Sicily.

To constitution, and to debase government, now became object triumphant court. Shortly before last dissolution, a scheme for this purpose, drawn up royalist ministers, had been placed by king in hands Castelnuovo, who was asked to examine it at leisure. It proved to be a series thirty articles, tending to destroy constitution, which substance was as follows.

I. king to have exclusive right proposing a law.

II. Either chamber parliament to have same privilege, with king's consent, and to be allowed to petition king to exercise his initiative or proposing power.

III. Persons occupying places government to be allowed to hold seats in Chamber Commons.

IV. liberty press to be allowed, restrictions in France by Louis XVIII.

V. ordinary revenue state to be settled by parliament once in five years. subsidies, composing extraordinary revenue, to be settled by king.

VI. Naples and Sicily to be united, as heretofore.

VII. In case king resided at Naples, 8,000 troops to be left in Sicily, at charge Sicilian treasury.

Castelnuovo, seeing clearly insidious tendency scheme, returned paper to king without saying a single word, and, withdrawing public life, retired into country. It is needless to observe, that scheme was never realized. Parliament, we have seen, had been dissolved on 17th May. On 18th, king embarked for Messina, whence he proceeded to Naples; and 4th June, 1815, when Ferdinand arrived in capital kingdom, Sicilian constitution ceased to be acknowledged or mentioned by public authority.

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CHAPTER VII.
REIGN OP FERDINAND I. OVER THE TWO SICILIES. PART. II., FROM 1815 TO 1825.

Naples.-Ferdinand, on his return from Sicily, found his Neapolitan dominions in an improved condition. Agriculture and manufactures flourished under better institutions than formerly. The civil laws, which, in 1805, had been scattered over a hundred volumes, and the criminal laws, which had been lost or dispersed among the public archives, were now collected, embodied, and harmonized; the deranged finances had been reduced to order; taxation had been remodelled; the funding system firmly established; and the internal government, formerly loose and unstable, had been consolidated under the name of a civil administration. The state of the military force was, indeed, deplorable. The army was broken up. and the navy almost destroyed; the country was, therefore, defenceless. The state of public instruction was more satisfactory, as popular education and religious worship had been placed upon better and more lasting foundations.

Between Ferdinand's restoration in 1815, and his death in 1825, the progress of the Neapolitan population was slow but steady. From about five millions, its amount in 1815, it rose to 5,034,191 in 1819, and in 1824 it exceeded five millions and a half; thus increasing at the rate of about five-tenths of one per cent, per annum.

The prosperity of manufactures was rather fleeting than permanent. Created by the Berlin and Milan decrees, it expired with the parent system. The Neapolitan weavers, unable to compete with the British, either in the quality or price of their goods, dismissed their workmen, sold off their stocks, and shut up their factories.

The restoration of Ferdinand was followed by the re-establishment of the bank of the Two Sicilies on a broader and firmer basis, and by the conclusion of commercial treaties with England, France, and Spain. These countries (the shipping of Which had been exempted from search for about one hundred and fifty years), renounced their privileges, upon receiving a reduction of ten per cent, upon the amount of duties payable on their respective products imported into the Two Sicilies. The same reduction of duties was granted to the national flag in August, 1823, upon imports of whatsoever origin, upon the plea that foreign flags enjoyed advantage over the Sicilian to which they were not entitled.

The plan of government established by the French invaders was suddenly and materially altered, on the 8th December, 1816. By a royal decree, issued from Caserta, it was made known that the Congress of Vienna, having recognized Ferdinand as king of the Two Sicilies, his Majesty (laying aside the title of Ferdinand the Fourth of Naples and Third of Sicily,) would be styled thenceforth Ferdinand the First; that a general chancery should be established for the united kingdom, in which all the laws and decrees should be deposited and registered; and that a court of chancery should be instituted, in which public business, destined to come before the king in council, should undergo scrutiny and discussion.

The new institutions, thus abruptly introduced, lasted for about six years. In 1822 the court of chancery was abolished, to make room for a consulta of state.

The administration of justice, established by the French rulers, subsisted until 1819,

71

when a new code of laws, modelled, in a great measure, on the Code Napoleon, and entitled the Code of the Two Sicilies, made its appearance as the authorized standard of national jurisprudence.

The reconstruction of the bench followed the reformation of the laws. The civil administration underwent no material change: the territorial division was slightly altered by the formation of a fifteenth province: the financial system continued the same. The revenue of the state amounted, in 1819, to 21,519,740 ducats, (3,586,623 l.) In 1817, a sinking fund, endowed with a capital of 600,000 ducats (100,000 l.), was established for the liquidation of the national debt. Proper attention was paid to the defence of the country: the army was recruited and reorganized: the line, raised by conscription, was carried by degrees up to 52,000 men; and a militia, composed of landowners, and consisting of twenty-one regiments, was enrolled for the better preservation of internal order.

The government of the church was settled on a new plan. By a concordat, made between the king and the Pope in 1818, it was stipulated that the number of bishoprics in Naples should be 109; that each should have a net revenue of not less than 3,000 ducats (500 l.) per annum; that the incomes of the cathedral and the parochial clergy should be regulated by circumstances; that dissolved monasteries should be re-established, in so far as was practicable; that the right of nominating bishops should belong to the king, and the right of confirming such appointments to the pope; and, lastly, that the bishops should be authorized to prevent the clandestine circulation of irreligious books. By virtue of this concordat, the monastic orders and the Jesuits were recalled and re-instated in 1821.

Sicily.-We now turn our attention to Sicily, the relations of which island towards Naples were settled by a second Caserta decree of the 11th December, 1816, or three days after the first. By this decree it was ordered, that all civil and ecclesiastical offices in Sicily should be filled by Sicilians, to the exclusion of Neapolitans, who, on the other hand, should occupy the civil and ecclesiastical offices of Naples, to the exclusion of Sicilians. Moreover it was provided, that the archbishopric of Palermo, the appointment to which had been open to Neapolitans and Sicilians alike, should be reserved for Sicilian ecclesiastics; and that Sicilians should be admitted to all the great offices of the state, in proportion to the number of the Sicilians to the population of the kingdom. As, therefore, the Sicilians formed only one-fourth of the whole population, so they should be admitted to one-fourth only of the seats in the council of state, leaving the remaining three-fourths to be filled by Neapolitans. It was provided, that the same rule should be observed in the appointments to great offices in the royal household, the departments of state, and the diplomatic service; * that commissions in the army and navy, and minor offices at court, should be given to Neapolitans and Sicilians indiscriminately; that the government of the Two Sicilies should be vested in the king's person; that when the sovereign resided in Sicily, a prince of the blood, or a nobleman of high rank, should be left in Naples to act as lord-lieutenant; and that when the king resided at Naples, the same rule should be observed vice versa with regard to Sicily:

* The principle of separate right*, thus laid down, remained in force until 1837, when it yielded to the principle of common possession, which is now in full vigour.

72

that the quota to be contributed by Sicily towards the revenue of the united kingdom should never, " without the consent of the Sicilian parliament," exceed 1,847,687 ounces (923,843 l.) per annum, (that amount having been the sum voted by the parliament of 1813).

The last paragraph calls for a few remarks on its nature and tendency. The sum of 1,847,687 ounces, stated to be the sum voted by parliament in 1813, was the gross amount of revenue, from which, if the British subsidy of 560,000 ounces, be deducted, there remains a net amount of 1,287,687 ounces only, which was the sum of all the taxes imposed in Sicily in 1813. The parenthesis, therefore, by insidiously confounding the partial sum of taxation with the gross amount of revenue, involves a practical untruth. Moreover, as no provision is made for the regular meeting of the legislature, the pretended security of parliamentary consent is hollow and worthless. The power of exacting whatsoever "quota" it may choose to fix, is thus given to the general government. In point of fact, the prescribed limit has been repeatedly passed, without the required consent of the Sicilian parliament having been first obtained, or even solicited, by the Crown.

The frame of government established by the Caserta decrees was disturbed for a moment by the Neapolitan and Sicilian revolutions of 1820. Upon the restoration of order in 1821, the several institutions of both countries were replaced on their former footing.

CHAPTER VIII.
REIGN OP FRANCIS OVER THE TWO SICILIES, FROM 1825 TO 1830.

Ferdinand I. was succeeded, on his death in 1825, by his eldest son, Francis, whose reign of five years presents nothing remarkable respecting Sicily, and but little concerning Naples. With respect to the latter country, the chief objects of interest are the revival of domestic manufactures, the establishment of bounties for distant navigation, the endowment of a sinking fund, the introduction of the regia, or farming of the taxes, and the taking of a census.

Each of these objects deserves brief consideration. A new tariff of the customs, imposing heavy duties upon foreign merchandize, having been published by Ferdinand shortly before his death, the weaving of cottons and woollens started up afresh in Naples. The manufacturers, who were mostly Germans, received great encouragement from Francis. Accommodated with public buildings to be turned into factories, and provided with work-people fed and clothed by the state, they readily placed their establishments on a firm foundation.

With the view of promoting navigation among the Neapolitans and Sicilians, reductions of twenty per cent, upon import duties on East and West India goods, and of ten per cent, on Baltic goods (over and above the ten per cent, allowed to the Sicilian flag), were granted to national vessels for the first voyage, provided they took outward cargoes of domestic produce. Under the reigning sovereign (we may mention beforehand), these bounties have been granted to national vessels for the second •voyage also, under the same conditions.

In 1826, the sinking fund obtained a further endowment, which raised its yearly income to 1,038,470 ducats, (173,078 l.)

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Destined to pay off 2,770,850 ducats of the national rentes in 31 years and 5 months, (leaving the remaining 1,420,000 ducats as a permanent fund for investments and deposits,) this institution has hitherto answered its purpose.

A regia, or farming of the indirect taxes, was now introduced. Its principal object, which was to secure to the treasury a certain amount of annual revenue, has been fully attained. Any casual surplus is divided between the regia and the treasury, in the proportion of 55 per cent, to the former and 45 to the latter.

The revenue of the kingdom at the close of this reign amounted to 26,669,787 ducats (4,444,964 l.), and the expenditure to 27,298,616 ducats (4,549,436 l.); so that a deficit remained of 628,829 ducats (104,805 l.)

At the beginning of 1827, a census was taken of the Neapolitan population. In the published results the males have been divided into two great classes-the employed and the unemployed. The first class was subdivided into two sections, viz., people in the public service, and people in private occupations; the first section embraced the army and navy, the regular and secular clergy, the civil servants, and public teachers; the second section included the members of the liberal professions, and persons in productive employments. Their respective numbers are shown in the following table.

Army and Navy


40,745



Regular and Secular Clergy.


36,067



Civil Servants


25,035



Public Teachers


5,642



Total in the Public Service


---------

107,489


Lawyers

8,043




Doctors, &c

9,105




Merchants

10,957




Total of Professional People

-----------

28,105



Husbandmen

1,475,314




Shepherds

65,226




Mechanics

316,122




Total of Working People

-----------

1,856,662



Total in Private Occupations.


----------

1,884,767


Total of Males Employed




1,992,256

Unemployed




636,89

Total of Male Population




2,629,148


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It appears, therefore, that in 1826 about three-fourths of the male population were variously employed, and the remaining fourth was unemployed. The proportion borne by the latter class to the whole population is undoubtedly large; but to him who bears in mind that this fourth includes the very young and very old, with all those incapacitated by physical or other causes, it will not appear excessive. It is smaller than the reports of travellers, which represent the Neapolitans as a nation of idlers, might have led us to expect.

Upon the death of Francis in 1830, Ferdinand, his eldest son, the present monarch, succeeded to the throne under the title of Ferdinand II. In the concluding chapters we shall describe the present condition of the kingdom and of its population.

177

Progress of the Two Sicilies under the Spanish Bourbons, from the Year 1734-35 to 1840. BY JOHN GOODWIN, Esq., Her Majesty's Consul for Sicily.-(Continued from p. 73.)

CHAPTER IX.
REIGN OF FERDINAND II. OVER THE TWO SICILIES, FROM 1830 TO 1840.

Naples.-Population-'Agriculture- Manufactures - Inland Trade - Trade with Sicily-Foreign Trade-Government-Legislature-Justice - Finances -Army and Navy-Education-The Clergy.

Sicily.-Population-The Peasantry-Agriculture-Sulphur Mines-The Sulphur Contract-Manufactures-Fisheries -Commerce - Local Government- Public Charities-Finances-Education-The Church.

Naples.-At the accession of the reigning sovereign in 1830, the inhabitants of the realm of Naples amounted to 5,732,114: at the end of 1840, they had increased to the number of 6,177,598.

The Neapolitan peasantry, who form the bulk of the population, are a rough but kind hearted set of people, who only require to be well used and honestly treated to become good subjects and hard labourers. Hitherto their masters have dealt with them harshly, and met with a corresponding return. In Calabria the peasants generally live in villages, whence they go forth daily to their work in the field. During nine months in the year the day labourer earns about 6s. a-week; during the other three, or during the harvest and vintage, he gets double wages. In some parts the unmarried labourer is lodged and boarded by his master; whilst the married man has a cottage rent-free, about 4d. a-day, and a monthly allowance of Indian corn, wine, and oil.

In the capital and in large towns, artizans and mechanics are paid partly by the job and partly by the day, according to the custom of their Beveral trades. Thus, in the woollen manufacture, the weaver is paid about 12s. for a piece of cloth, 45 yards long by 1 ½ yard wide. In the silk manufacture, on the other hand, the weaver is paid by time, and earns from 2s. To 2s. 6d. a-day, according to circumstances. The latter is the usual rate of a mechanic's wages in the capital; in the country, the rate is much lower.

The Neapolitan territory is said to be thus appropriated to the purposes of agriculture.

Square miles.


Corn Lauds

12,000

Vineyards

1,000

Woods and Olive grounds

3,000

Gardens and Orchards

500

Pastures and Sheepwalks

6,500

Wastes

9,000

Total Area.

32,000

The chief products of husbandry are corn, wine, oil, cotton, flax, hemp, liquoricepaste, silk, and wool.

The average crop of wheat is 5,500,000 imperial quarters, and the yearly consumption about 5,000,000 quarters, being at the rate of about fourfifths of a quarter for each inhabitant; but in abundant harvests the crop often amounts to nearly 10,000,000 quarters.

178

The annual produce of Indian corn (the second element of public consumption,) is about 500,000 imperial quarters. The yearly production of wine is about 400,000 pipes, the principal part of which is consumed at home. About 13,000 pipes are made into brandy at the distilleries near the capital, and about 250 tons of argots and cream of tartar are prepared for foreign markets. -About 70,000 tuns of olive oil are expressed yearly, half of which is consumed at home. Of the quantity exported, the greater part is produced in Apulia and Calabria. In the former province the chief loading place is Gallipoli, which supplies England, Holland, and the north of Europe with clarified oils for the use of the woollen manufactures. The yearly crop of cotton is about 10,000 tons. The annual production of raw silk is about 1,000,000 lbs., of which about half is consumed at home. The Apulian wool is of so coarse and harsh a quality as to require to be mixed with Merino (a breed of which sheep is domesticated in Abruzzo,) or with foreign staples, before it can be woven into cloth of even moderate fineness.

The chief manufactures are those of woollens, leather, silks, cottons, paper, soap, glass, earthenware, steel, and iron. The woollen factories produce yearly about 6,000 pieces of fine cloth for the markets of Naples and Palermo, and from 60 to 80,000 pieces of coarse cloth for the use of the peasantry and fishermen. The tanneries render yearly 8,000 bales of leather, the quality of which depends much on the mode of preparation. Where bark is used, the leather is good and lasting: but where myrtle leaves are substituted, the product is spongy and rotten. The yearly production of organzine and sewing silk is about 145,000 lbs., whereof 120,000 lbs. are exported. Three hundred looms are commonly employed in the weaving of silks, chiefly for home consumption. The principal seat of this manufacture is Caserta, where 700 or 800 weavers produce annually from 2,000 to 3,000 pieces of silk, somewhat inferior to the French and English.

The cotton manufacture in both its branches is principally in the hands of Swiss and German capitalists. The spinning mills are those of David Vonwiller and Co., of Salerno, and of Escher and Co., of the same place; of Egg, at Piedimonte, and of Mayer and Zollinger, at Scafati. These mills, where the cotton spun is the growth of Naples and Sicily, contain 29,500 spindles, which produce yearly 9,900 cantars (1,940,000 lbs.) of yarn, from No. 3 to No. 32 English. At Vonwiller's, 9,000 spindles, moved by steam and water power, produce yearly 3,000 cantars (588,000 lbs.) of yarn, from No. 3 to No. 30 English. At Escher's, 10,000 spindles moved by water, produce yearly 3,000 cantars (588,000 lbs.) of yarn, from No. 6 to No. 30 English. At Eggs, 7,500 spindles, moved by water, produce yearly 2,700 cantars (529,200 lbs.) of yarn, from No. 3 to No. 32 English. At Mayer and Zollinger, 3,000 spindles, moved by steam, produce yearly 1,200 cantars (235,200 lbs.) of yarn, from No. 3 to No. 18.

At all these factories the hours of labour are 13 daily. At Vonwiller's factory, the number of work-people is 200, viz., 100 men, 30 women, and 70 children. At Escher's, the number is 300, viz., 150 men, 50 women, and 100 children. The wages of labour are the same at both, viz., for men, from 35 to 45 grains a-day, (1s. 2d to Is. 6d.,) women from 20 to 25 grains, (8d. to 10d.,) children from 12 to 18 (5d. to 7d.)

The weaving mills are those of Schlapper, Wenner, and Co. of Salerno and Angri, Egg of Piedimonte, Mayer and Zollinger of Scafati, and Angelo, Avelloni, and Co. of the same place.

179

At these mills, 96,000 pieces of 10 canes (23 1/3 yards) oft cotton cloth are produced yearly for dying and printing. At Schlapper, Wenner, and Co. 140 power looms, moved by steam, and 250 hand looms, with the fly shuttle, produce yearly from 1,000 cantars (196,000 lbs.) of English yarn, Nos. 30 to 40, 50,000 pieces. At Egg's, 50 power looms, and 250 hand looms, with the fly shuttle, produce yearly from English yarn 25,000 pieces. At Mayer and Zollinger's, 250 hand looms, with the fly shuttle, use yearly 500 cantars (98,000 lbs.) Turkey red yarn, and produce 15,000 pieces. At Angelo, Avelloni, and Co. 6,000 pieces are produced annually from Turkey red yarn. At the last two factories the weft is of Nos. 28 to 32, and the warp of Nos. 36 to 42 English, half and half. The hours of labour at all these factories are 13 daily, as in the spinning mills.

The number of work-people employed in these factories is 2,650, viz., 620 men, 1,220 women, and 810 children. The wages of labour vary considerably.

Men earn, per diem, from 20 to 40 grains, = 8d. to 1s. 4d.

Women ,, 15 to 30 ,, 6d. to 1s.

Children ,, 4 to 20 ,, 2d. to 8d.

The foremen and over-lookers, who are foreigners, both in the spinning and weaving factories, receive from 3s. 4d. to 5s. a-day.

There are besides about 8,000 hand looms, belonging to small manufacturers at Castellammare, Scafati, Angri, La Cara and Naples, of which 7,500 have the common shuttle, and 500 the fly. These produce about 500,000 pieces a-year, making, with the factory looms, a total production of 597,000 pieces.

At the above factories the bleaching is done with English powder, and the printing with Swiss and English machinery. Most of the cotton drills, nankeens, &c., which formerly came from England, are now made in Naples.

The linen manufacture gives employment to about 400 hand looms.

About 1,500 tons of malleable, and 500 tons of pig iron, are made yearly in the realm. The best iron is that made at the Satriano founderies in Calabria, from ore brought from Elba. From 300 to 400 tons are produced per annum.

The inland trade of Naples has become active since carriage roads have been constructed in all parts of the realm. The trade of the capital is much promoted by the establishment of a national bank.

The bank of the Two Sicilies is a bank of deposit and circulation, issuing transferable notes in exchange for national specie: it is likewise in some degree a Monte di Pieta, or public pawnbroking establishment, advancing money upon plate, jewels, silks, and woollens, deposited as security for loans. In one of its departments, called the Cassa di Sconto, merchants, bills, at six months date, with three signatures, are discounted at 3 ½ per cent.

The coasting trade between the Two Sicilies has reached a high degree of importance since 1823, (when free trade was first established between the united countries,) as will be seen from the following abstract made in 1836.

180

Abstract of the yearly Trade between the Two Sicilies about the year 1836.

Articles of Exchange.

Import from

Sicily into Naples,

Esports from Naples to Sicily


£.

£.

Materials of food

257,000


109,000


Of clothing building, and furnishing

148,000


270,000


Of general industry

38,000

75,000

Total

445,000

454,000


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Weekly communication is kept up between the Two Sicilies by means of steam packets of from 160 to 240 horsepower, sailing under the national flag, which enjoys the monopoly of every branch of the Cabotage. Almost daily communication is maintained between Naples, on the one hand, and CivitaVecchia, Leghorn, Genoa, and Marseilles on the other, by national and foreign steamers of large size and powerful engines.

The foreign trade of Naples embraces eight classes of countries, viz.:

1. Great Britain and her North American, Adriatic, and Mediterranean colonies.

2. France and Algiers.

3. The Sardinian, Tuscan, and Papal States.

4. Holland, Belgium, Germany, and Austrian Italy.

5. Norway, Sweden, Denmark, and Russia.

6. Greece, Tripoli, Tunis, Spain, and Portugal.

7. The United States.

8. Brazil and the States of Rio de la Plata.

The relative importance of the different branches may be gathered from the following summary of the foreign trade of Naples, the capital, in 1840:-

Countries

Imports

Exports

Total


£.

£.

£.


90,586

54

90,640

Baltic, countries on the

141,733

14,692

156,425

Belgium, Germany, &c

60,084

9,236

69,320

Brazil and States of the Rio de la Piata

12,214


12,214

France and Colonies

200,109

304,337

504,446

Great Britain and Colonies

802,176

123,949

926,125

Italian States

191,711

158,691

350,402

Mediterranean countries

28,232

1,631

29,$63

Total

1,526,845

612,590

2,139,435

The articles of exchange will be found in the following tables of exports and imports:—

The articles of exchange will be found in the following tables of exports and imports:—


Articles

United States

The Baltic.

Belgium and Germany.



£.

£.

£.

Colonial produce

Cochineal

7,200

• •

• •

Cocoa

1,9-25

• •

• •

Coffee

2,046

440

1,005

Indigo

• •

• •

• •

Pepper

122

• •

• •

Rum

* •

• •

• •

Sugar and Molasse

78,936

106,788

491

Tea

• •

• •

• •

Woods

357

• •

• •

miscellaneous

Cottons

• •

• •

807

Cotton yarn

• •

• •

• •

Cotton mixed with linen & wool

• •

• •

749

Earthenware and glass

• •

• •

2,912

Fancy goods

• •

• •

20

Hardwares

• •

30

874

Linens

• •

• •

2,619

Silks

• •

• •

4

Woollens

• •

• •

39,990

miscellaneous

Brass

• •

• •

750

Coals

• •

• •

316

Copper

• •

• •

1,088

Drugs and colours

• •

• •

• •

Fish salted

• •

22,556

• •

Hides

• •

• •

106

Iron

• •

1,300

480

Lead

• •

• •

140

Leather

• •

• •

• •

Pitch and tar

• •

10,619

• •

Steel

• •

• •

5,338

Tin plates and bars

• •

• •

28

Wax

• •

• •

2,043

Other articles

• •

• •

324


Total

90,586

141,733

60,084














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