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Great Britain: Paper Correspondence Despatch relating to the Southern of Italy


Presented to both Houses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty.






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Settembre 2018


Consul Bonham to Earl RussellJanuary14, 18621
2Consul Bonham to Earl RussellFebruary10,  ----1
One Inclosure
3Sir J. Hudson to Earl Russell February22,   ----3
4Sir J. Hudson to Earl Russell February22,   ----3
One Inclosure
5Consul Bonham to Earl RussellFebruary25,   ----4
6Sir J. Hudson to Earl RussellFebruary28,   ----4
7Consul Bonham to Earl RussellMarch16,   ----4
8Consul Bonham to Earl RussellMarch7,   ----5
9Consul Bonham to Earl RussellMarch19,   ----5
Two Inclosures
10Consul Bonham to Earl RussellMarch20,   ----8
Two Inclosures
11Consul Bonham to Earl RussellMarch21,   ----8
12Sir J. Hudson to Earl Russell March29,   ----9
13Consul Bonham to Earl RussellMarch27,   ----9

Correspondence respecting Southern Italy.

No. 1.

Consul Bonham to Earl Russell.-"(Received January 29.)

My Lord,

Naples, January 14, 1862.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that this country continues tranquil, and the prospects of commerce for the new year appear favourable. The produce of olive oil, the principal and most valuable export from these provinces, is now ascertained to have been, generally, extremely abundant and of good quality. There is some discontent that the duty on the exportation of this oil from the Neapolitan provinces is retained, as in other parts of Italy olive oil is not subject to such export duty, but the impost is of old, date, and the revenue from it is so large that it has probably been found unadvisable to give it up at onoe.

A change is being now made in the currency in Naples and the provinces by the substitution of lire for the old Neapolitan currency of ducats and grani. This, of course, occasions some temporary inconvenience, which unfortunately is aggravated by the circumstance that the Bank is not sufficiently supplied with silver coin, and pays dividends, &c., in gold 20-franc pieces at a fixed rate, although gold is not yet made a legal tender, and is not readily current at the same rate. A petition from the mercantile body on this subject has been sent to Turin, and it may be supposed that gold will be made a legal tender here as it is in other parts of Italy.

I have &C


No. 2.

Consul Bonham to Earl Russell.-"(Received February 25.)

My Lord,

Naples, February 10, 1862.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that a demonstration took place here yesterday, directed against the temporal power of the Pope. About 3,000 people assembled in the forenoon in the Palace square with fiags, and proceeded thence, in two divisions, to perambulate the city, shouting “Viva Vittorio Emmanuele! - “Abasso il Papa-Ré! “Viva Garibaldi! - and snudar cries. The weather was very unpropitious for any proceedings of the kind, violent and most heavy showers of rain succeeding each other at short intervals throughout the day, and though a considerable number of people were sufficiently enthusiastic to continue for hours to bear patiently the drenching rain to which they were exposed, the demonstration did not assume the proportions it would otherwise undoubtedly have done. One division of the procession, including a great number of well- dressed people and several priests and monks, stopped in passing opposite the French Consulate, and also opposite this Consulate, cheering the respective countries,’ and vociferating strenuously, *Viva Vittorio Emmanuele in Campidoglio! - &c.,-"the other division, including, I presume, a large proportion of the Nicoterists, or party of action, whose discontentat the continued occupation of Rome by French troops is more openly declared, passed up the Toledo, tearing down ot effacing every placard on which appeared the words w Viva l’Imperatore de’ Francesi,? of which a number had been stuck up in the course of the morning.; - I inclose a report of the proceedings from one of the evening journals. All passed off without interference on the part of the Government, and without any serious disturbance.; There can be no doubt the feeling of this people is daily becoming more and more hostile to the Pope, whom they ore learning to look upon as the chief opponent of the settlement and tranquillity of the country. In September 1860 Padre Gavazzi first preached in the Palace-square in this city against the Pope-King, and his remarks were received with applause; since that time the feeling then aroused has continued to gain strength, and the supporters of the temporal power have greatly diminished. Nothing probably could be so detrimental to the influence of the Papacy, whether in its spiritual or temporal character, as being constantly quoted and looked upon as the one principal obstacle to the prosperity and consolidation of Italy.

I have &c.


Inclosure in No. 2.

Extract from, a Neapolitan Newspaper.


AS we had already announced yesterday, this morning an imposing demonstration against the temporal power of the Popes, and that Rome might return to Italy as its capital, took place.

From the early morning all the Toledo was adorned with flags bearing inscriptions alluding to the circumstance. Although the weather was cold and rainy, Toledo was also crowded by people. About mid-day the demonstration, composed of all classes of citizens, divided itself into two sections: a very numerous one with flags at its head traversed the Toledo; the other, much larger, went to the house of the French Consul. It was an imposing spectacle, and which contrasted strangely with the assertions of Cardinal Antonelli relative to the sentiments of the Italian people. Here were, not a few individuals, but an immense crowd composed of every class of every rank of persons without exception; the Liberal clergy figured everywhere.

In the section which traversed the Toledo the following inscriptions were legible on a great national flag: " Long live the Pope! - “Down with the temporal power I - “Long live Victor Emmanuel II in the Campidoglio! - “Long live Garibaldi! - in addition to which other papers were seen affixed to the walls of the Toledo, and on the flags which flew about from the houses with these words: “Long live the Pope not King! - “Long live Italy with its King in the Campidoglio! - “Long live France with its Emperor! - That portion of the demonstration which went to the French Consul-General’s house, and which was, we must say, the greatest portion, had also its flags with the same inscriptions; it traversed with a band at its head the entire Toledo, and stopped at the square of the Plebiscite before the Foresteria Palace; there the usual cheers, the same acclamations, but the Prefect not appearing at the balcony the crowd went towards St. Lucia and stopped under the windows of the French Consulate. To the reiterated cries of “Long live the Emperor! - “Long live France! - “Long live the French people! - “Long live Victor Emmanuel in the capital! - “Down with the Pope-King! - the French Consul appeared at the window to thank the people; as the crowd stopped there some time shouting, so the Consul courteously went out on the balcony many times also with his lady.

After the manifestation at the French Consulate had terminated, the crowd also went to the house of the British Consul; there were also clamorous and continuous cries of “Long live England! - Afterwards the demonstration returned towards the Toledo and dispersed tranquilly little by little, so that not the slightest accident was to be deplored. In the moment in which we write the most perfect tranquillity reigns everywhere. Moreover, as an appendix to the imposing demonstration, the following protest is circulating in our city: it is already covered with thousands of signatures, and it continues to be signed by all. This is its tenor: “‘ If the Holy Father has broken with the Cabinet of Turin, he finds himself in excellent relations with the Italian people.-"Cardinal Antonelli.’ “Down with the Pope-King!’ ‘ Long live Rome, capital of Italy!’ The Italian people, jealous guardian of its dignity and of its sacred rights, protests strongly against the words of Cardinal Antonelli, and declares:-".

“1. That the above-named Cardinal is guilty of calumny against the nation.

“2. That the Italian people is one with the Government in wishing all Italy to belong to the Italians, and in overthrowing the greatest obstacle to our unity-"the temporal power of the Popes.

“3. And that it will cease to fight against the Popedom only when Italy shall be recognized in Rome, its legitimate capital.?

No. 3.

Sir J. Hudson to Earl Russell.-"(Received February 25.)


Turin, February 22, 1862.

I HAVE good ground for believing that brigandage is now being organized under the authority of the ex-King of Naples and the patronage of the Court of Rome for operations on a large and bloody scale during the approaching spring.

It is my duty to bring this question under the serious consideration of Her Majesty’s Government; because, if brigandage is once more to be organized and tolerated, it must, from the sheer force of circumstances, place the Italian Government between two fires: the one, the strength which it will infose into the ranks of the “Party of Action, - as it is designated, in other words the Mazzinians; the other, the necessity which this Government will be under of maintaining its authority at the risk of civil war; because we must expect to hear the Mazzinians cry treason on Ricasoli if Ricasoli puts the law in force against Mazzini on a question upon which every city in Italy has recently pronounced itself.

Brigandage, therefore, if again permitted to make Rome its head-quarters, may force this Government to adopt a forward movement, and that movement may light the flames of discord throughout Europe.

No. 4.

Sir J. Hudson to Earl Russell.-"(Received February 25.)

My Lord,

Turin, February 22, 1862.

WITH reference to my preceding despatch of this date, upon the subject of the re-organization of brigandage at Rome, I have the honour to call your Lordship’s attention to the inclosed copy and translation of a species of proclamation of General Garibaldi to the patriotic “Associations - of Italy, by which they are invited to send delegates to Genoa; and in which they are reminded of the programme which led them to Palermo.

This address is simply to decide upon another programme which shall lead them to Rome, for that, if we are to judge by passing events, is the subject which engrosses the public mind in Italy.

If, when these delegates meet, they understand that brigandage is upon the point of recommencing its operations, with its basis at Rome, we may, we must, expect a very serious demonstration.

It is suggested that this meeting be prevented by authority.

Apart from the faculty of public meetings granted within certain limits by the Constitution, it is clear that were this Government to adopt that course, it would simply exasperate and not meet the necessities and exigencies of the situation; because, instead of speaking openly, these delegates would conspire in secret, and this Government might then find itself constrained to have resort to some of the machinery of despotic authority which has always broken down in Italy.The danger, then, is not in the meeting, but in the great political fact of the continued occupation of Rome by foreign troops, when the necessity for that occupation has absolutely ceased; and this danger will be by so much the more augmented by the fact that brigandage, which has cost the lives of many an honest conscript and good soldier, which has widowed some and beggared others, which is a heavy pull upon the public purse, and which is the more detested because it would be suppressed if it were not covered by the presence of foreigners, and concocted and carried on by foreigners, and composed mainly of the scum of foreign society, is once more restored, re-organized, and flourishing in that very city which the entire Italian nation claims as their common capital.

I have, &c.


Inclosure in No. 4.



To the Committees for Supplies, the whole of the Patriotic Associations of Italy.

THE meeting of the 9th of March next may become pregnant with excellent results^ if all the Liberal Associations of Italy are represented there. I am therefore of opinion that they should be represented there.^"’’fConvinced as I am that the acts of the meeting will be worthy of the practical judgment which distinguishes Italians, and that its conclusions will respond to the legitimate expectations of the earnest friends of liberty, and to the wants of our country, I abstain from givigg advice. With the same programme which led us to Palermo and to Naples, and with the high principles of the <f Plebiscito - of the 21st of October, 1860, the Italian revolution may have a glorious consummation. Were it not for private circumstances which prevent me, I should myself be at Genoa on the 9th of March. In lieu thereof, I shall await at Caprera, a result of which I may boast as an Italian.

Health and fraternity.

Caprera, February 17, 1862.(Signed) G. GARIBALDI.

No. 5.

Consul Bonham to Earl Russell.-"(Received March 1.)

My Lord,

Naples, February 25, 1862.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that accounts having appeared in the papers stating that a numerous band of brigands or adventurers organized in the Roman territory had recently appeared in the vicinity of Terracina, rendering the roads near the frontier insecure, and watching apparently a favourable moment for an incursion into this territory, I took an opportunity yesterday of inquiring from Colonel Farriola, Chief of the Staff of his Excellency General la Marmora, as to the correctness of the report. Colonel Farriola told me it was true, but that his last accounts reported the band had gone off in the direction of Frosinone. He seemed to entertain no doubt that an irruption on a large scale would shortly be made into this territory. He further said the Government had reason to believe that preparations were in progress by Bourbon agents at Marseilles, at Barcelona, and also at Malta, to embark a certain number of adventurers for a landing in this country. He added that the Government were well prepared, that the accounts from the provinces were very favourable, the general state of feeling good, and that if these adventurers did actually venture on landing they would meet with no support, but come to certain destruction. I believe this is a true view of the case, and that a landing now Would have, if possible, even less chance of success than that effected by General Boijes in September last.

Hie number of Neapolitans enrolled in the army in North Italy is considerable. Of these many have now Come down with or to join their regiments in these provinces, and the favourable account they give of their new service has produced a very good effect, and tended greatly to remove the prejudice against North Italy which the ill-disposed were and are constantly endeavouring to instil into the minds of the peasantry.

I have , &c.


No. 6.

Sir J. Hudson to Earl Russell.-"(Received March 4.)

My Lord,

Turin, February 28, 1862.

IN reply to the inquiry which, by your Lordship’s commands, I have made of Baron Ricasoli, whether the order ot Colonel Fantoni, at Lucera, to which the Earl of Derby has alluded in the House of Lords is genuine, 1 have the honour to state that Baron Ricasoli informs me that it was published without the consent of the superior military authority, by whom its suppression was immediately ordered.

I have, &c.


No. 7.

Consul Bonham to Earl Russell.-" (Received March 13.)

My Lord,

Naples, March 6, 1862.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship, that having seen in the“Times - of the 26th February, a report of a conversation in the House of Lords relative to a Proclamation ft issued in these Provinces, of which I had not previously heard, I called on General La Marmora to ask some information about it. His Excellency told me that the first he heard of it was an inquiry by telegraph from Turin respecting a Proclamation said to have been issued by a General Fantoni, there being no General of that name in the service. He at once proceeded, however, to investigate the matter, and found that a Major Fantoni, commanding a battalion, had, in effect, drawn up such a Proclamation, and had it printed in Lucera. Having then submitted it to the General commanding the district, that officer at once disapproved and disavowed it; it was set aside and not acted upon in any way. Some person, however, having obtained a copy, sent it, it would appear, to the journal “Armonia, - at Turin, in which it was published. His Excellency added that he had communicated all this by telegraph to Turin some days ago, and doubtless your Lordship has been already informed of the circumstance by Her Majesty’s Envoy at Turin. I, however, write to state to your Lordship that this Proclamation was not published either in the official or any other journal in these Provinces, until just now that its publication in the “Armonia - having attracted attention in England, it has been copied into the journal called the Popolo d’Italia. -

I have, &c.


No. 8.

Consul Bonham to Earl Russell.-"(Received March 13.)

My Lord,

Naples, March 7, 1862.

I HAVE the honour to inform your Lordship that the Vice-Consul at Brindisi reports the re-appearance of brigands in that neighbourhood. Bands of marauders are also spoken of as having made their appearance in other districts.

I asked General La Marmora, yesterday, what truth there was in these reports.

His Excellency stated that bands had appeared in some places, but in small numbers.

He added, Brigandage in this country is an affair of old date, and it is useless to flatter ourselves that it can be suppressed all at once. Until we improve our internal communications by the construction of railroads and of common roads, and have an efficient and properly-organized force of Carabinieri in the country, we cannot hope wholly to eradicate it. But these brigands are mere marauders, and not in any way formidable or important as to numbers.

His Excellency also stated that there had as yet been no disembarkation of adventurers from abroad.

I have, &c.


No. 9.

Consul Bonham to Earl Russell.-"(Received March 25.)

My Lord,

Naples, March 19, 1862.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that I this day received a letter from Cosenza, signed Baron Antonio Valerio, containing what purports to be copy of a Proclamation issued by Major Fumel in that neighbourhood. I inclose copy and translation of that document.

Immediately I received it I called on his Excellency General La Marmora, and showed it to him. His Excellency told me he had not previously seen it, and had only heard of its existence by the mention of the subject in the House of Commons. He read it, as every one must do, with indignation and disgust. He said that Major Fumel is not in or belonging to the army, and he (the General) has nothing to do with him, and does not understand by what authority he is acting. He asked me to let him have a copy of the Proclamation, which I of course gave him, and he called Colonel Farriola, Chief of the Staff, and desired him to send off a telegram at once to the Prefect of Calabria, to know on whose authority this Proclamation, which has excited the natural indignation of foreign nations, had been issued. His Excellency promised to send me copy of the Prefect’s reply, which, as soon as I receive it, I will transmit to your Lordship.

I also inclose copy and translation of Baron Valerio’s letter. I am not acquainted with the writer, and cannot doubt his statements are exaggerated, That men may havebeen shot at the places named is possible, but I do not believe that any Northern Italian would be guilty of shooting a woman under the circumstances stated.

It is, I trust, needless for me to add that the reason I did not sooner send a copy of this document to your Lordship is, that I did not possess it, nor was any one in this city cognizant of its existence. The copy that I received is the first that has come to Naples.

Doubtless the utmost exasperation exists on the part of the troops towards the brigands; it cannot be otherwise. The latter put to death with excessive cruelty any one of the troops who has the misfortune to fall into their power-"cut off the mustachios and chin-tufts of their victims, and wear them as ornaments in their hats. Having such trophies it is not possible to suppose they can expect or receive quarter when they, on their part, fell into the hands of the troops.

General La Marmora further stated to me that a Captain and nineteen men of a Company of Infantry at Lucera near Foggia, having separated from the rest of the company when marching in that neighbourhood yesterday, were overpowered, and all massacred by brigands. Their bodies were subsequently found by their companies stripped and horribly mutilated.

I have, &c.


Inclosure 1 in No. 9.

Notice to the Public.

Il Sottoscritto, incaricato della destruzione del brigantaggio, promette una mancia di franchi 100, per ogni brigante, vivo o morto, che si presenterà. Tale mancia sarà data a quel brigante che ucciderà un compagno suo, oltre di aver salva la vita. Disfida che sarà inmediatamente fucilato chi dia ricovero o mezzo qualunque di sussistenza o di difesa ai briganti, e vedendoli o sapendone il luogo dove sonsi rifugiati non ne diano sollecito alla forza, ed alle autorità civili e militari.

Per la custodia degli animali sarà bene che si facciano più centri con competente forza armata, perchè non sarà valevole senza la forza maggiore. Tutte le pagliaia devono essere abbruciato, le torre e le case di campagna che non sono abitate e custodite di forza devono essere fra lo spazio di giorni tre, scoperte e le aperture venire ammurate. Scaduto tale termine saranno senza meno abbruciate, come saranno uccisi gli animali senza la necessaria custodia. Resta proibito portare pane o viveri qualunque fuori l’abitato del comune, e sarà tenuto come complice di brigante il contraventore.

Provvisoriamente e per questa circostanza i Signori Sindaci sono autorizzati di concedere il porto d’armi sotto la stretta responsabilità del proprietario che ne farà la richiesta.

L’esercizio dello caccia è pure provvisoriamente vietato, e perciò non si potrà sparare se non per dare avviso ai posti armati della presenza dei briganti, ovvero della fuga.

La Guardia Nazionale è responsabile al territorio del proprio comune.

Il Sottoscritto non intende vedere in questa circostanza che due partite, briganti e contro briganti; perciò tra i primi terrà chi voglia tenersi indifferente, e contro questi prenderà misure energiche, perchè quando il bisogno generale lo richiede è delitto il rifiutarsi.

I soldati sbandati che no si presenteranno fra quattro giorni saranno considerati briganti.

Celico, il 1 Marzo, 1862.

Il Maggiore,

(Firmato) S. FUMEL.


THE Undersigned, charged with the destruction of brigandage, promises a reward of 100 francs for every brigand, alive or dead, who may be brought to him. This reward will be given to any brigand who shall kill his companion; moreover, his own life will be spared. In defiance of this, those who may give shelter or any means of subsistence or support to brigands, or seeing them or knowing the place where they have taken refuge, do not give information to the force and to the civil and military authorities, will be immediately shot.

For the custody of animals, it will be well that they should be brought into several central spots, with a sufficient armed force, because it will not be of use without a considerable force. All straw huts must be burnt, the towers and country houses which are not inhabited and guarded by a force must be, within the space of three days, unroofed, and their entrances bricked up. After the expiration of that time they will, without fail, be burnt, as also all animals which are not in proper custody will be killed. It is prohibited to carry bread or any kind of provisions beyond the habitations of the communes, and whoever contravenes this will be considered an accomplice of the brigands.

Provisionally, and for this circumstance, the Syndics are authorized to grant permission to carry arms under the strict responsibility of the proprietor who shall make the request.

Shooting as sport is also provisionally forbidden, and therefore no one may fire off a gun except to give notice to the armed posts of the presence of brigands, or else of their flight.

The National Guard is responsible for the territory of their own commune.

The Undersigned does not mean to recognize, under present circumstances, but two parties-"brigands and anti-brigands; therefore, he will class amongst the first those who are indifferent, and against these he will take energetic measures, for when the general necessity demands it, it is a crime to refuse.

The disbanded soldiers who do not present themselves within the space of four days will be considered brigands.

Celico, March 1, 1862.

The Major,

(Signed) S. FUMEL.

Inclosure 2 in No. 9.

Baron Valerio to Consul Bonham.


Cosenza, 12 Marzo, 1862.

LORD DERBY interpellava il Governo Inglese sul manifesto pubblicato nella infelice Capitanata dal Piemontese Fantoni, e ne otteneva le assicurazioni che dal Governo di Torino si sarebbe agito con umanità! Sappia il Governo Inglese che il Piemonte, onde non lasciarsi sfuggire dagli artigli la preda che coi tradimenti e le infamie ha carpita, aggiunge alla crudeltà l’insulto, e mentre assicura che si sarebbe agito con umanità, permette che nelle Calabrie, un avventuriere, un certo Fumel, venuto qui quale organizzatore di Guardia Nazionale, che non ha organizzata perchè nessuno ne vuol sapere, lasciata tale missione, si è dato a percorrere queste contrade mettendole a sacco, fuoco, e rovina.

E perche tutti sian persuasi di tale crudeltà leggano il seguente bando Avviso al Pubblico.

Nè il Fumel è uomo da non tenere la parola, dappoiché in Bisignano fucilava none individui dopo che si erano presentati volontariamente; due in Acri; altri due in Corigliano; una donna vecchia perchè non faceva presentare la figlia che seguiva un brigante; in Longobucco altri quattro; in Crucoli sei, e così in diversi altri paesi; incendiando c diroccando tutte le case di campagna, pagliaia e ricoveri per uomini ed animali, e carcerando quanto più gente gli capita fra le mani. Murat non fece in Francia quello che si sta facendo “dal Governo riparatore, venuto ai gridi di dolori. - Ma badi che la misura non sia colma; rifletta che qui sono i discendenti di coloro che distrussero al primo Napoleone 40,000 Francesi! Guai se si risveglieranno! Possibile che l’Europa, la quale è intervenuta per le stragi della Siria, della Turchia, del Messico, provincie barbare e lontanissime, assistere silenziose, e permettono tanti orrori fra popolazioni che lo appartengono per costumi, per religione, e per amore?




Cosenza, March 12, 1862.

LORD DERBY asked explanations from the English Government respecting the manifesto published in the unfortunate Capitanata by the Piedmontese Fantoni, and received the assurance that the Government of Turin would act with humanity. Let the English Government know that Piedmont, not to allow to escape through her fingers the prey which, by treasons and infamies, she has seized, adds to cruelty insult, and whilst she gives the assurance that she will act with humanity, permits that in Calabria, an adventurer, à certain Fumel, comes here as organizer of the National Guards, which he has not organized, because no one would know him, having abandoned that mission, has taken upon himself to pass through these districts, subjecting them to sack, fire, and ruin.And that all may be convinced of this cruelty let them read the following Proclamation.

Neither is Fumel a man not to keep his word, inasmuch, as at Bisignano,Jhe shot nine persons, after they had voluntarily presented themselves; in Acri, two others; in Corigliano an old woman, because she did not produce her daughter, who had gone off with a brigand; in Longobucco, four others; in Crucoli six, and so on in other places; burning and destroying all the country houses, huts, and shelters for men and animals, and imprisoning as many people as fell into his hands. Murat did not do in France that which is now being done by the "Government, redressor of grievances, come at the cries of suffering. - But let them beware that the measure is not filled, let them reflect that here are the descendants of those who destroyed 40,000 Frenchmen to the first Napoleon. Woe if they are again aroused! Is it possible for Europe, which has interfered for the massacres of Syria, of Turkey, of Mexico, barbarous and very distant provinces, to stand by in silence^and permit such horrors amongst populations which belong to her by customs, by religion, and by love?


No. 10.

Consul Bonham to Earl Russell.-"(Received March 25.)

My Lord,

Naples, March 20, 1862.

WITH reference to my despatch of yesterday’s date, I have the honour to inclose copy of a note I received last night from General La Marmora, transmitting translation of the reply his Excellency had received from the Prefect of Calabria.

I have, &c.


Inclosure 1 in No. 10.

General La Marmora to Consul Bonham.

M. le Consul-Général,

Naples, 19 Mars, 1862.

VOICI la réponse que je viens de recevoir du Préfet de Calabre.

Je ne pouvais vous envoyer la dépêche elle-mème, parce qu’elle est en chiffre, et puisqu’il fallait la copier je l’ai traduite textuellement en Français.


Inclosure 2 in No. 10.

The Prefect of Calabria to General La Marmora.


Cosenza, le 19 Mars, 1861, 6h. 20m.

J’AURAIS empêché la Proclamation Fumel si je l’avais connu à temps. Du reste elle n’a jamais été imprimée, et le Major l’a laissée divulguer par les Syndics plutôt pour inspirer de la crainte, mais il a toujours usé une louable modération et justice, et rendu d’éminents services.

Depuis quelque temps j’en avais averti le Ministère, craignant ce qui effectivement est arrivé.


No. 11.

Consul Bonham to Earl Russell.-"-(Received March 29.)

My Lord,

Naples, March 21, 1862.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that, having seen in the "Times - of the 15th March a report of an inquiry made in the House of Commons by Sir George Bowyer to the First Lord of the Treasury as to whether Her Majesty’s Government hadreceived information that, whilst the body of the deceased Archbishop of Amalfi was lying in state in the Cathedral of that town, and whilst the funeral service was being chanted by the Clergy, a party of Revolutionists rushed into the church with drawn daggers and repeatedly stabbed the! corpse of the Prelate, I lost no time in making inquiries on the subject. I can inform your Lordship, with entire confidence, that no such atrocious occurrence took place. What did occur was as follows:-" Domenico Ventura, Archbishop of Amalfi, died, in Naples, on or about the 11th of February. The body was taken to Amalfi for interment. The usual religious ceremonies having been duly performed, the authorities required that, according to the existing law, which prohibits interments in churches, the body should be deposited in the Campo Santo, instead of in a vault in the Cathedral, where, heretofore, it had been the custom to deposit the bodies of deceased Bishops. Upon this a commotion took place amongst the population of Amalfi, especially amongst the women, who, carrying their wooden slippers, assem- bled in great numbers at |he Cathedral and insisted on the old custom being adhered to. No regular troops are stationed at Amalfi: The National Guard, amongst whom, I am told, there are but twelve muskets, could not quell the disturbance. The authorities yielded, and the corpse was placed in a vault in the Cathedral.

A day or two after the occurrence, Signor Zoppi, Prefect of Principato Citra, hearing what had taken place, sent a company of Regulars from Salerno, and in their presence the coffin containing the corpse of the Archbishop was removed from the vault in the Cathedral and deposited in the Campo Santo without any further disturbance.

Such are the real facts of the case.

As I have taken this account principally from letters which have been shown me, written by persons having strong Reactionary tendencies, I am quite sure that nothing that could be stated against the present Government has been omitted. I have written to the Vice-Consul at Salerno for a report on the case, but being satisfied of the correctness of the above particulars, I do not delay sending them.

As to the further report, that an expectation existed in Naples that the tombs of the former Royal Family in the church of Santa Chiara were likely to be violated, I am unable to trace any foundation whatever for that report. I have, unfortunately, not been able, to-day, to find the Brazilian Consul-General, but I have spoken to several of my colleagues, no one of whom had heard of such an unexpected occurrence any more than I had. I have seen the Civil Prefect, M. Visone, and the Secretary of the Questor of Police: they assure me that they have never heard one word on the subject; that no communication has been received by them from the Brazilian Consul or Minister relative to the protection of the tombs of the children of the Princess of Aquila; that there has never been the slightest reason to suppose there was danger of their being violated, and that jthey are utterly unable to devise how such a report can have originated.

I have, &c.


No. 12.

Sir J. Hudson to Earl Russell.-"(Received April 1.)


Turin, March 29, 1862.

I HAVE the honour to inform your Lordship that I have been told on good authority that Prince Petrulla, who for some time past has been organizing an expedition at Trieste to land in the Neapolitan provinces, has now ordered a quantity of red Garibaldi shirts and other equipments, in imitation of Garibaldi’s volunteers, for the purpose of dressing his recruits in them, and so mystifying the population wherever they may land.

No. 13.

Consul Bonham to Earl Russell.-"(Received April 2.)


Naples, March 27, 1862.

I HAVE the honour to report to your Lordship that Colonel Brianza, of the 8th Regiment Infantry, stationed in the Capitanata, at whose suggestion it would appear the Proclamation recently issued by Major Fantoni at Lucera, in that province, was drawn up, has been placed “en disponibilité. - I herewith inclose copy and translation of the order of the day issued by him on leaving his command. This dismissal is bitterly commentedon in some of the journals, and it is assumed, from remarks recently made in the British Parliament, that many persons in England view the system of brigandage with a favourable eye. It is also alleged that active assistance is being afforded by the British flag in the transport of adventurers to land on these shores..

The Gazzettino di Napoli of 25th instant says:-"“As it is well known, reaction is trying a last effort, and again raises its head. At Borne bands are being organized militarily, which, embarked in ships under the English flag, are trying to effect a disembarkation on the coasts of Puglia and Bari. It would appear that communications exist with the brigands in the interior, as those under the orders of Crocco are approaching the shores of the Adriatic, committing the usual excesses. - It is probable this assertion as to English ships is not true, but it produces an unpleasant feeling. As to the character of these excesses committed in the Capitanata, they are atrocious. The following detail I learn from the statement of a gentleman who returned to Naples a few days since, having been plundered by the band of the said Crocco, near Foggia. I know no reason to doubt the truth of his statement, which is as follows:-"“I left Bari. The road being considered unsafe, two diligences, having together fourteen passengers, travelled in company. On 14th March we were stopped by a large band in the Valley of Bovino. Amongst the passengers were a lady, an old serjeant of veterans, a police officer, and a monk; the others were private travellers. We were taken some miles into the forest, where the large body of brigands were assembled; these numbered about 100, all young men, dressed as peasants, not at all as soldiers: two appeared to act as Chiefs, one of whom was called Schiavone, a man about 35 or 36 years old, the other, Crocco, a man about 22 or 23. We were stripped of our money and clothes, the lady’s earrings were also taken, the seijeant was then shot, the policeman was bound and thrown amongst a heap of faggots, which wrere set on fire, and he was burnt; the rest of us remained for some time in extreme terror, not knowing what would be our fate; finally, one of the Chiefs ordered that we should be let go, and we were released accordingly, found our way to Ariano, and thence to Naples. I have to-day seen a telegram reporting the burning alive of a priest by the same band of Crocco, near Ascoli, which is also in the neighbourhood of Bovino. - Another General is appointed to command in Capitanata in place of General Dedda,

Inclosure in No. 13.

Order of the Day by Colonel Brianza.

Uffiziali, Sott’Uffiziali e Soldati! D’ACCORDO coll’ autorità politica, io dava ordine al mio Luogotenente Colonnello Cavaliere Fantoni di proclamare misure di rigore onde ottenere se non la distruzione totale del brigantaggio, almeno diminuirne la devastazione e l’eccidio in queste belle ed infelici contrade.

Il Governo del Re ha trovato quel mio Proclama forse non troppo opportuno nelle attuali contingenze politiche, e perciò ne decretava la mia disponibilità.

Tal sovrano provvedimento a mio riguardo ha immensamente addolorato il mio cuore, poiché mi obbliga a separarmi da voi, che, da due anni vostro Capo, mi deste non dubbie prove di disciplina e coraggio; basti l’accennarvi la morte testé incontrata da 18 dei vostri compagni comandati dal bravo Capitano Richard, i quali piuttosto di cedere le armi a quelli assassini in numero de 140 circa, preferirono di difendere l’onore Italiano sino all’ ultimo sangue. Quattro di quelli infelici erano Napoletani, ed in oggi, nel dipartirmi da voi, son felice di poter tributare una parola di elogio anche a voi, soldati dell’ Italia Meridionale, che colta bella condotta tenuta, e valore dimostrato, vi 6Ìete fatti degni di combattere al fianco dei commilitoni vostri di Palestro e S. Martino.

Al momento di dividermi mi credo ancora in obbligo di raccomandarvi una salda e costante disciplina, che saggi vi ha sin’ ora mantenuti..

L’animo mio gode nel sapervi scevri da ogni antico spirito di Municipalismo e che ciascuno di voi s’ascrive ad onore l’essere Italiano. Io non dubito punto che, presentandosi l’occasione di cimentarvi col nemico, saprete aggiungere nuovi allori a quelli già acquistati, compensando cosi le cure del nuovo Capo che sarà scelto a dirigervi, e del Governo del Re che dall’ esercito s’aspetta il coronamento della grand’opera della unificazione d’Italia.

Viva il Re! Viva l’Italia!

Foggia, 22 Marzo, 1862.

Il Colonnello, (firmato) E. BRIANZA


Officers, Non-Commissioned Officers, and Soldiers!

IN accordance with the political authorities, I gave orders to my Lieutenant-Colonel, the Cavalier Fantoni, to proclaim rigorous measures, so as to obtain, if not the total destruction of brigandage, at least to diminish the devastation and bloodshed caused by it in these fair and unhappy countries.

The Government of the King has found this my Proclamation, perhaps, not altogether opportune under actual political contingencies, and, consequently, has decided on my dismissal.

This sovereign decision, as regards me, has deeply grieved my heart, as it obliges me ' to separate myself from you, who, during the two years I have been your commander, have given me no doubtful proofs of discipline and courage: it suffices to call to mind the death which has just now befallen 18 of your comrades commanded by the brave Captain Richard, who, rather than lay down their arms to these assassins, about HO in number, preferred to defend Italian honour to the last drop of their blood. Four of these unfortunates were Neapolitans, and on this day, in taking leave of you, I am happy to be able to offer a tribute of praise also to you, soldiers of Southern Italy, who in good conduct observed, and valour shown, have rendered yourselves worthy to fight by the side of your fellow-soldiers of Palestra and San Martino. At the moment of leaving you, I consider myself again obliged to recommend to you ardent and constant discipline, such as I know you have hitherto maintained. It rejoices my heart to know you severed from my old feeling of municipalism (provincialism), and that you hold it an honour to be Italian. I have no doubt whatever that when the occasion shall present itself for you to measure yourselves with the enemy you will know how to add fresh laurels to those already gained, thus rewarding the care of the new commander who may be chosen to lead you, and of the Government of the King, who expects from the army the accomplishment of the grand work of the unification of Italy.

Viva il Re! Viva l’Italia!

Foggia, March 22, 1862.

The Colonel,


Correspondence respecting Southern Italy.

Presented to both Souses of Parliament by Command of Her Majesty.

1862 .



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